Assignment Operators

C++ provides several assignment operators for abbreviating assignment expressions. For example, the statement

c = c + 3;

can be abbreviated with the addition assignment operator += as

c += 3;

The += operator adds the value of the expression on the right of the operator to the value of the variable on the left of the operator and stores the result in the variable on the left of the operator. Any statement of the form

variable = variable operator expression;

in which the same variable appears on both sides of the assignment operator and operator is one of the binary operators +, -, *, /, or % (or others we'll discuss later in the text), can be written in the form

variable operator= expression;

Thus the assignment c += 3 adds 3 to c. Figure 4.19 shows the arithmetic assignment operators, sample expressions using these operators and explanations.

Figure 4.19. Arithmetic assignment operators.

Assignment operator

Sample expression



Assume: int c = 3, d = 5, e = 4, f = 6, g = 12;


c += 7

c = c + 7

10 to c


d -= 4

d = d - 4

1 to d


e *= 5

e = e * 5

20 to e


f /= 3

f = f / 3

2 to f


g %= 9

g = g % 9

3 to g

Introduction to Computers, the Internet and World Wide Web

Introduction to C++ Programming

Introduction to Classes and Objects

Control Statements: Part 1

Control Statements: Part 2

Functions and an Introduction to Recursion

Arrays and Vectors

Pointers and Pointer-Based Strings

Classes: A Deeper Look, Part 1

Classes: A Deeper Look, Part 2

Operator Overloading; String and Array Objects

Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance

Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism


Stream Input/Output

Exception Handling

File Processing

Class string and String Stream Processing

Web Programming

Searching and Sorting

Data Structures

Bits, Characters, C-Strings and structs

Standard Template Library (STL)

Other Topics

Appendix A. Operator Precedence and Associativity Chart

Appendix B. ASCII Character Set

Appendix C. Fundamental Types

Appendix D. Number Systems

Appendix E. C Legacy Code Topics

Appendix F. Preprocessor

Appendix G. ATM Case Study Code

Appendix H. UML 2: Additional Diagram Types

Appendix I. C++ Internet and Web Resources

Appendix J. Introduction to XHTML

Appendix K. XHTML Special Characters

Appendix L. Using the Visual Studio .NET Debugger

Appendix M. Using the GNU C++ Debugger


C++ How to Program
C++ How to Program (5th Edition)
ISBN: 0131857576
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 627 © 2008-2020.
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