This chapter introduces the important topic of data structurescollections of related data items. Arrays are data structures consisting of related data items of the same type. You learned about classes in Chapter 3. In Chapter 9, we discuss the notion of structures. Structures and classes are each capable of holding related data items of possibly different types. Arrays, structures and classes are "static" entities in that they remain the same size throughout program execution. (They may, of course, be of automatic storage class and hence be created and destroyed each time the blocks in which they are defined are entered and exited.)

After discussing how arrays are declared, created and initialized, this chapter presents a series of practical examples that demonstrate several common array manipulations. We then explain how character strings (represented until now by string objects) can also be represented by character arrays. We present an example of searching arrays to find particular elements. The chapter also introduces one of the most important computing applicationssorting data (i.e., putting the data in some particular order). Two sections of the chapter enhance the case study of class GradeBook in Chapters 36. In particular, we use arrays to enable the class to maintain a set of grades in memory and analyze student grades from multiple exams in a semestertwo capabilities that were absent from previous versions of the GradeBook class. These and other chapter examples demonstrate the ways in which arrays allow programmers to organize and manipulate data.

The style of arrays we use throughout most of this chapter are C-style pointer-based arrays. (We will study pointers in Chapter 8.) In the final section of this chapter, and in Chapter 23, Standard Template Library (STL), we will cover arrays as full-fledged objects called vectors. We will discover that these object-based arrays are safer and more versatile than the C-like, pointer-based arrays we discuss in the early part of this chapter.

Introduction to Computers, the Internet and World Wide Web

Introduction to C++ Programming

Introduction to Classes and Objects

Control Statements: Part 1

Control Statements: Part 2

Functions and an Introduction to Recursion

Arrays and Vectors

Pointers and Pointer-Based Strings

Classes: A Deeper Look, Part 1

Classes: A Deeper Look, Part 2

Operator Overloading; String and Array Objects

Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance

Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism


Stream Input/Output

Exception Handling

File Processing

Class string and String Stream Processing

Web Programming

Searching and Sorting

Data Structures

Bits, Characters, C-Strings and structs

Standard Template Library (STL)

Other Topics

Appendix A. Operator Precedence and Associativity Chart

Appendix B. ASCII Character Set

Appendix C. Fundamental Types

Appendix D. Number Systems

Appendix E. C Legacy Code Topics

Appendix F. Preprocessor

Appendix G. ATM Case Study Code

Appendix H. UML 2: Additional Diagram Types

Appendix I. C++ Internet and Web Resources

Appendix J. Introduction to XHTML

Appendix K. XHTML Special Characters

Appendix L. Using the Visual Studio .NET Debugger

Appendix M. Using the GNU C++ Debugger


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C++ How to Program
C++ How to Program (5th Edition)
ISBN: 0131857576
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 627
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