References and Reference Parameters

Two ways to pass arguments to functions in many programming languages are pass-by-value and pass-by-reference. When an argument is passed by value, a copy of the argument's value is made and passed (on the function call stack) to the called function. Changes to the copy do not affect the original variable's value in the caller. This prevents the accidental side effects that so greatly hinder the development of correct and reliable software systems. Each argument that has been passed in the programs in this chapter so far has been passed by value.

Performance Tip 6.5

One disadvantage of pass-by-value is that, if a large data item is being passed, copying that data can take a considerable amount of execution time and memory space.


Reference Parameters

This section introduces reference parametersthe first of two means C++ provides for performing pass-by-reference. With pass-by-reference, the caller gives the called function the ability to access the caller's data directly, and to modify that data if the called function chooses to do so.

Performance Tip 6.6

Pass-by-reference is good for performance reasons, because it can eliminate the pass-by-value overhead of copying large amounts of data.

Software Engineering Observation 6.13

Pass-by-reference can weaken security, because the called function can corrupt the caller's data.

Later, we will show how to achieve the performance advantage of pass-by-reference while simultaneously achieving the software engineering advantage of protecting the caller's data from corruption.

A reference parameter is an alias for its corresponding argument in a function call. To indicate that a function parameter is passed by reference, simply follow the parameter's type in the function prototype by an ampersand (&); use the same convention when listing the parameter's type in the function header. For example, the following declaration in a function header

int &count

when read from right to left is pronounced "count is a reference to an int." In the function call, simply mention the variable by name to pass it by reference. Then, mentioning the variable by its parameter name in the body of the called function actually refers to the original variable in the calling function, and the original variable can be modified directly by the called function. As always, the function prototype and header must agree.

Passing Arguments by Value and by Reference

Figure 6.19 compares pass-by-value and pass-by-reference with reference parameters. The "styles" of the arguments in the calls to function squareByValue and function squareByReference are identicalboth variables are simply mentioned by name in the function calls. Without checking the function prototypes or function definitions, it is not possible to tell from the calls alone whether either function can modify its arguments. Because function prototypes are mandatory, however, the compiler has no trouble resolving the ambiguity.

Figure 6.19. Passing arguments by value and by reference.

(This item is displayed on pages 276 - 277 in the print version)

 1 // Fig. 6.19: fig06_19.cpp
 2 // Comparing pass-by-value and pass-by-reference with references.
 3 #include 
 4 using std::cout;
 5 using std::endl;
 7 int squareByValue( int ); // function prototype (value pass) 
 8 void squareByReference( int & ); // function prototype (reference pass)
10 int main()
11 {
12 int x = 2; // value to square using squareByValue
13 int z = 4; // value to square using squareByReference
15 // demonstrate squareByValue
16 cout << "x = " << x << " before squareByValue
17 cout << "Value returned by squareByValue: "
18 << squareByValue( x ) << endl;
19 cout << "x = " << x << " after squareByValue
" << endl;
21 // demonstrate squareByReference
22 cout << "z = " << z << " before squareByReference" << endl;
23 squareByReference( z );
24 cout << "z = " << z << " after squareByReference" << endl;
25 return 0; // indicates successful termination
26 } // end main
28 // squareByValue multiplies number by itself, stores the 
29 // result in number and returns the new value of number 
30 int squareByValue( int number ) 
31 { 
32  return number *= number; // caller's argument not modified
33 } // end function squareByValue 
35 // squareByReference multiplies numberRef by itself and stores the result
36 // in the variable to which numberRef refers in function main 
37 void squareByReference( int &numberRef ) 
38 { 
39  numberRef *= numberRef; // caller's argument modified 
40 } // end function squareByReference 
 x = 2 before squareByValue
 Value returned by squareByValue: 4
 x = 2 after squareByValue

 z = 4 before squareByReference
 z = 16 after squareByReference

Common Programming Error 6.14

Because reference parameters are mentioned only by name in the body of the called function, the programmer might inadvertently treat reference parameters as pass-by-value parameters. This can cause unexpected side effects if the original copies of the variables are changed by the function.

Chapter 8 discusses pointers; pointers enable an alternate form of pass-by-reference in which the style of the call clearly indicates pass-by-reference (and the potential for modifying the caller's arguments).

Performance Tip 6.7

For passing large objects, use a constant reference parameter to simulate the appearance and security of pass-by-value and avoid the overhead of passing a copy of the large object.

Software Engineering Observation 6.14

Many programmers do not bother to declare parameters passed by value as const, even though the called function should not be modifying the passed argument. Keyword const in this context would protect only a copy of the original argument, not the original argument itself, which when passed by value is safe from modification by the called function.

To specify a reference to a constant, place the const qualifier before the type specifier in the parameter declaration.

Note in line 37 of Fig. 6.19 the placement of & in the parameter list of function squareByReference. Some C++ programmers prefer to write int& numberRef.

Software Engineering Observation 6.15

For the combined reasons of clarity and performance, many C++ programmers prefer that modifiable arguments be passed to functions by using pointers (which we study in Chapter 8), small nonmodifiable arguments be passed by value and large nonmodifiable arguments be passed to functions by using references to constants.


References as Aliases within a Function

References can also be used as aliases for other variables within a function (although they typically are used with functions as shown in Fig. 6.19). For example, the code


int count = 1; // declare integer variable count int &cRef = count; // create cRef as an alias for count cRef++; // increment count (using its alias cRef)

increments variable count by using its alias cRef. Reference variables must be initialized in their declarations (see Fig. 6.20 and Fig. 6.21) and cannot be reassigned as aliases to other variables. Once a reference is declared as an alias for another variable, all operations supposedly performed on the alias (i.e., the reference) are actually performed on the original variable. The alias is simply another name for the original variable. Taking the address of a reference and comparing references do not cause syntax errors; rather, each operation actually occurs on the variable for which the reference is an alias. Unless it is a reference to a constant, a reference argument must be an lvalue (e.g., a variable name), not a constant or expression that returns an rvalue (e.g., the result of a calculation). See Section 5.9 for definitions of the terms lvalue and rvalue.

Figure 6.20. Initializing and using a reference.

 1 // Fig. 6.20: fig06_20.cpp
 2 // References must be initialized.
 3 #include 
 4 using std::cout;
 5 using std::endl;
 7 int main()
 8 {
 9 int x = 3;
10 int &y = x; // y refers to (is an alias for) x
12 cout << "x = " << x << endl << "y = " << y << endl;
13 y = 7; // actually modifies x
14 cout << "x = " << x << endl << "y = " << y << endl;
15 return 0; // indicates successful termination
16 } // end main
 x = 3
 y = 3
 x = 7
 y = 7

Figure 6.21. Uninitialized reference causes a syntax error.

(This item is displayed on pages 278 - 279 in the print version)

 1 // Fig. 6.21: fig06_21.cpp
 2 // References must be initialized.
 3 #include 
 4 using std::cout;
 5 using std::endl;
 7 int main()
 8 {
 9 int x = 3;
10 int &y; // Error: y must be initialized
12 cout << "x = " << x << endl << "y = " << y << endl;
13 y = 7;
14 cout << "x = " << x << endl << "y = " << y << endl;
15 return 0; // indicates successful termination
16 } // end main

Borland C++ command-line compiler error message:

 Error E2304 C:cpphtp5_examplesch06Fig06_21fig06_21.cpp 10:
 Reference variable 'y' must be initialized in function main()

Microsoft Visual C++ compiler error message:

 C:cpphtp5_examplesch06Fig06_21fig06_21.cpp(10) : error C2530: 'y' :
 references must be initialized

GNU C++ compiler error message:

 fig06_21.cpp:10: error: 'y' declared as a reference but not initialized

Returning a Reference from a Function

Functions can return references, but this can be dangerous. When returning a reference to a variable declared in the called function, the variable should be declared static within that function. Otherwise, the reference refers to an automatic variable that is discarded when the function terminates; such a variable is said to be "undefined," and the program's behavior is unpredictable. References to undefined variables are called dangling references.

Common Programming Error 6.15

Not initializing a reference variable when it is declared is a compilation error, unless the declaration is part of a function's parameter list. Reference parameters are initialized when the function in which they are declared is called.

Common Programming Error 6.16

Attempting to reassign a previously declared reference to be an alias to another variable is a logic error. The value of the other variable is simply assigned to the variable for which the reference is already an alias.

Common Programming Error 6.17

Returning a reference to an automatic variable in a called function is a logic error. Some compilers issue a warning when this occurs.


Error Messages for Uninitialized References

Note that the C++ standard does not specify the error messages that compilers use to indicate particular errors. For this reason, Fig. 6.21 shows the error messages produced by the Borland C++ 5.5 command-line compiler, Microsoft Visual C++.NET compiler and GNU C++ compiler when a reference is not initialized.

Introduction to Computers, the Internet and World Wide Web

Introduction to C++ Programming

Introduction to Classes and Objects

Control Statements: Part 1

Control Statements: Part 2

Functions and an Introduction to Recursion

Arrays and Vectors

Pointers and Pointer-Based Strings

Classes: A Deeper Look, Part 1

Classes: A Deeper Look, Part 2

Operator Overloading; String and Array Objects

Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance

Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism


Stream Input/Output

Exception Handling

File Processing

Class string and String Stream Processing

Web Programming

Searching and Sorting

Data Structures

Bits, Characters, C-Strings and structs

Standard Template Library (STL)

Other Topics

Appendix A. Operator Precedence and Associativity Chart

Appendix B. ASCII Character Set

Appendix C. Fundamental Types

Appendix D. Number Systems

Appendix E. C Legacy Code Topics

Appendix F. Preprocessor

Appendix G. ATM Case Study Code

Appendix H. UML 2: Additional Diagram Types

Appendix I. C++ Internet and Web Resources

Appendix J. Introduction to XHTML

Appendix K. XHTML Special Characters

Appendix L. Using the Visual Studio .NET Debugger

Appendix M. Using the GNU C++ Debugger


C++ How to Program
C++ How to Program (5th Edition)
ISBN: 0131857576
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 627 © 2008-2020.
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