A.1. Operator Precedence

Operators are shown in decreasing order of precedence from top to bottom (Fig. A.1).

Figure A.1. Operator precedence and associativity chart.

[Pages 1229 - 1230]





binary scope resolution

left to right


unary scope resolution




left to right


array subscript



member selection via object



member selection via pointer



unary postfix increment



unary postfix decrement



runtime type information


dynamic_cast < type >

runtime type-checked cast


static_cast< type >

compile-time type-checked cast


reinterpret_cast< type >

cast for nonstandard conversions


const_cast< type >

cast away const-ness



unary prefix increment

right to left


unary prefix decrement



unary plus



unary minus



unary logical negation



unary bitwise complement



determine size in bytes









dynamic memory allocation



dynamic array allocation



dynamic memory deallocation



dynamic array deallocation


( type )

C-style unary cast

right to left


pointer to member via object

left to right


pointer to member via pointer




left to right









left to right





bitwise left shift

left to right


bitwise right shift



relational less than

left to right


relational less than or equal to



relational greater than



relational greater than or equal to



relational is equal to

left to right


relational is not equal to



bitwise AND

left to right


bitwise exclusive OR

left to right


bitwise inclusive OR

left to right


logical AND

left to right


logical OR

left to right


ternary conditional

right to left



right to left


addition assignment



subtraction assignment



multiplication assignment



division assignment



modulus assignment



bitwise AND assignment



bitwise exclusive OR assignment



bitwise inclusive OR assignment



bitwise left-shift assignment



bitwise right-shift assignment




left to right

Introduction to Computers, the Internet and World Wide Web

Introduction to C++ Programming

Introduction to Classes and Objects

Control Statements: Part 1

Control Statements: Part 2

Functions and an Introduction to Recursion

Arrays and Vectors

Pointers and Pointer-Based Strings

Classes: A Deeper Look, Part 1

Classes: A Deeper Look, Part 2

Operator Overloading; String and Array Objects

Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance

Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism


Stream Input/Output

Exception Handling

File Processing

Class string and String Stream Processing

Web Programming

Searching and Sorting

Data Structures

Bits, Characters, C-Strings and structs

Standard Template Library (STL)

Other Topics

Appendix A. Operator Precedence and Associativity Chart

Appendix B. ASCII Character Set

Appendix C. Fundamental Types

Appendix D. Number Systems

Appendix E. C Legacy Code Topics

Appendix F. Preprocessor

Appendix G. ATM Case Study Code

Appendix H. UML 2: Additional Diagram Types

Appendix I. C++ Internet and Web Resources

Appendix J. Introduction to XHTML

Appendix K. XHTML Special Characters

Appendix L. Using the Visual Studio .NET Debugger

Appendix M. Using the GNU C++ Debugger


C++ How to Program
C++ How to Program (5th Edition)
ISBN: 0131857576
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 627

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