Posting a Message to an NNTP Server

While you're connected to an NNTP server, you can post messages to Usenet. Usenet articles are in the same basic format as email, but with some slightly stricter rules about required headers. You can read the full article format specification in RFC 1036 ( After you post an article through NNTP, your local NNTP server will pass it on to the other servers it knows about. From there, the article will continue to be passed from server to server until it's available throughout the Usenet network.

9.3.1. How Do I Do That?

Construct an article using the email.Message module (see Example 9-3). Select the newsgroup to which you'll be posting, and then post the article.

Example 9-3.

from import nntp

from twisted.internet import protocol, defer

import time, email

class NNTPPostProtocol(nntp.NNTPClient):

 def connectionMade(self):



 def gotGroup(self, groupInfo):

 # post the article to the current newsgroup


 def postedOk(self):


 def postFailed(self, errorMessage):


 def connectionLost(self, error):

 if not self.factory.deferred.called:


class NNTPPostFactory(protocol.ClientFactory):

 protocol = NNTPPostProtocol

 def _ _init_ _(self, newsgroup, articleData):

 self.newsgroup = newsgroup

 self.articleData = articleData

 self.deferred = defer.Deferred( )

from email.Message import Message

from email.Utils import make_msgid

def makeArticle(sender, newsgroup, subject, body):

 article = Message( )

 article["From"] = sender

 article["Newsgroups"] = newsgroup

 article["Subject"] = subject

 article["Message-Id"] = make_msgid( )


 return article.as_string(unixfrom=False)

if __name__ == "_ _main_ _":

 from twisted.internet import reactor

 import sys

 def handleError(error):

 print >> sys.stderr, error.getErrorMessage( )

 reactor.stop( )

 if len(sys.argv) != 3:

 print >> sys.stderr, "Usage: %s server newsgroup" % sys.argv[0]


 server, newsgroup = sys.argv[1:3]

 sender = raw_input("From: ")

 subject = raw_input("Subject: ")

 bodyLines = []

 while True:

 line = raw_input( )

 if line == ".": break


 body = "

 articleData = makeArticle(sender, newsgroup, subject, body)

 print articleData

 factory = NNTPPostFactory(newsgroup, articleData)


 lambda _: reactor.stop( )).addErrback(


 reactor.connectTCP(server, 119, factory) )

Run with two arguments: the newsgroup and the NNTP server. It will prompt you to enter your article, connect to the server, and post your article to the newsgroup:

 $ python alt.local.test localhost


 Subject: Test Message

 Enter article body below, followed by a single period:

 Hello Usenet World!


 Posting message.... done!

Don't post test messages to public newsgroups, except for alt.test, which is set aside specifically for testing purposes. If you want to run a private NNTP server so you can post test messages without disturbing anyone, see "Running a Basic NNTP Server," later in this chapter.


9.3.2. How Does That Work?

In Example 9-3, the makeArticle function uses the email.Message.Message class to create an article in the proper format for posting to Usenet. It sets the following headers:



The email address of the person posting the article. This header is the same as in an email message.



The list of newsgroups to which the article is being posted. If the message is being posted to multiple newsgroups, they should be separated by commas.



The subject, just like in an email message.



A globally unique identifier for this article, in the form . This is the same as the Message-Id header in an email message. It's important to use something truly unique, as the message ID will be used to identify this specific article as it moves from server to server in Usenet. The email.Utils module provides the helpful function make_msgid for generating unique message IDs.



The date and time the article was created. This header is the same as in an email message. The function formatdate in email.Utils will take the floating-point number returned from time.time or time.gmtime and return a string in the proper format. If called with no arguments, as in Example 9-3, it returns the formatted current time.

The body of the article is a standard text message, which you add to the Message object using set_payload.

The NNTPPostProtocol class in Example 9-3 posts an article to the server using the postArticle method of nntp.NNTPClient. The postedOK method will be called if the article is posted successfully; the postFailed method will be called if it fails. Note that postArticle doesn't take the name of the newsgroup as an argument: the article will be posted to whatever newsgroups are listed in the Newsgroups header.

Getting Started

Building Simple Clients and Servers

Web Clients

Web Servers

Web Services and RPC


Mail Clients

Mail Servers

NNTP Clients and Servers


Services, Processes, and Logging

Twisted Network Programming Essentials
Twisted Network Programming Essentials
ISBN: 0596100329
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 107
Authors: Abe Fettig © 2008-2020.
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