Answers to Self Review Exercises


a). b) std. c) erase. d) find_first_of.

  1. True.
  2. True.
  3. True.
  4. False. A string is an object that provides many different services. A C-style string does not provide any services. C-style strings are null terminated; strings are not necessarily null terminated. C-style strings are pointers and strings are not.
  1. Constructors for class string do not exist for integer and character arguments. Other valid constructors should be usedconverting the arguments to strings if need be.
  2. Function data does not add a null terminator. Also, the code attempts to modify a const char. Replace all of the lines with the code:

    cout << name.substr( 0, 3 ) + "-" + name.substr( 4 ) << endl;



Fill in the blanks in each of the following:

  1. Class string member functions ___________ and ___________ convert strings to Cstyle strings.
  2. Class string member function ____________ is used for assignment.
  3. ___________ is the return type of function rbegin.
  4. Class string member function ___________ is used to retrieve a substring.

State which of the following statements are true and which are false. If a statement is false, explain why.

  1. strings are always null terminated.
  2. Class string member function max_size returns the maximum size for a string.
  3. Class string member function at can throw an out_of_range exception.
  4. Class string member function begin returns an iterator.

Find any errors in the following and explain how to correct them:

  1. std::cout << s.data() << std::endl; // s is "hello"
  2. erase( s.rfind( "x" ), 1 ); // s is "xenon"
  3. string& foo() { string s( "Hello" ); ... // other statements return; } // end function foo

(Simple Encryption) Some information on the Internet may be encrypted with a simple algorithm known as "rot13," which rotates each character by 13 positions in the alphabet. Thus, 'a' corresponds to 'n', and 'x' corresponds to 'k'. rot13 is an example of symmetric key encryption. With symmetric key encryption, both the encrypter and decrypter use the same key.

  1. Write a program that encrypts a message using rot13.
  2. Write a program that decrypts the scrambled message using 13 as the key.
  3. After writing the programs of part (a) and part (b), briefly answer the following question: If you did not know the key for part (b), how difficult do you think it would be to break the code? What if you had access to substantial computing power (e.g., supercomputers)? In Exercise 18.26 we ask you to write a program to accomplish this.

Write a program using iterators that demonstrates the use of functions rbegin and rend.


Write a program that reads in several strings and prints only those ending in "r" or "ay". Only lowercase letters should be considered.


Write a program that demonstrates passing a string both by reference and by value.


Write a program that separately inputs a first name and a last name and concatenates the two into a new string.


Write a program that plays the game of Hangman. The program should pick a word (which is either coded directly into the program or read from a text file) and display the following:

 Guess the word: XXXXXX

Each X represents a letter. The user tries to guess the letters in the word. The appropriate response yes or no should be displayed after each guess. After each incorrect guess, display the diagram with another body part filled. After seven incorrect guesses, the user should be hanged. The display should look as follows:


After each guess, display all user guesses. If the user guesses the word correctly, the program should display

Congratulations!!! You guessed my word. Play again? yes/no

Write a program that inputs a string and prints the string backward. Convert all uppercase characters to lowercase and all lowercase characters to uppercase.


Write a program that uses the comparison capabilities introduced in this chapter to alphabetize a series of animal names. Only uppercase letters should be used for the comparisons.


Write a program that creates a cryptogram out of a string. A cryptogram is a message or word in which each letter is replaced with another letter. For example the string

The bird was named squawk

might be scrambled to form

cin vrjs otz ethns zxqtop

Note that spaces are not scrambled. In this particular case, 'T' was replaced with 'x', each 'a' was replaced with 'h', etc. Uppercase letters become lowercase letters in the cryptogram. Use techniques similar to those in Exercise 18.7.


Modify Exercise 18.15 to allow the user to solve the cryptogram. The user should input two characters at a time: The first character specifies a letter in the cryptogram, and the second letter specifies the replacement letter. If the replacement letter is correct, replace the letter in the cryptogram with the replacement letter in uppercase.


Write a program that inputs a sentence and counts the number of palindromes in it. A palindrome is a word that reads the same backward and forward. For example, "TRee" is not a palindrome, but "noon" is.


Write a program that counts the total number of vowels in a sentence. Output the frequency of each vowel.


Write a program that inserts the characters "******" in the exact middle of a string.


Write a program that erases the sequences "by" and "BY" from a string.


Write a program that inputs a line of text, replaces all punctuation marks with spaces and uses the C-string library function strtok to tokenize the string into individual words.


Write a program that inputs a line of text and prints the text backwards. Use iterators in your solution.


Write a recursive version of Exercise 18.22.


Write a program that demonstrates the use of the erase functions that take iterator arguments.


Write a program that generates the following from the string "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{":


In Exercise 18.7, we asked you to write a simple encryption algorithm. Write a program that will attempt to decrypt a "rot13" message using simple frequency substitution. (Assume that you do not know the key.) The most frequent letters in the encrypted phrase should be replaced with the most commonly used English letters (a, e, i, o, u, s, t, r, etc.). Write the possibilities to a file. What made the code breaking easy? How can the encryption mechanism be improved?


Write a version of the selection sort routine (Fig. 8.28) that sorts strings. Use function swap in your solution.


Modify class Employee in Figs. 13.613.7 by adding a private utility function called isValidSocialSecurityNumber. This member function should validate the format of a social security number (e.g., ###-##-####, where # is a digit). If the format is valid, return true; otherwise return false.

Introduction to Computers, the Internet and World Wide Web

Introduction to C++ Programming

Introduction to Classes and Objects

Control Statements: Part 1

Control Statements: Part 2

Functions and an Introduction to Recursion

Arrays and Vectors

Pointers and Pointer-Based Strings

Classes: A Deeper Look, Part 1

Classes: A Deeper Look, Part 2

Operator Overloading; String and Array Objects

Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance

Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism


Stream Input/Output

Exception Handling

File Processing

Class string and String Stream Processing

Web Programming

Searching and Sorting

Data Structures

Bits, Characters, C-Strings and structs

Standard Template Library (STL)

Other Topics

Appendix A. Operator Precedence and Associativity Chart

Appendix B. ASCII Character Set

Appendix C. Fundamental Types

Appendix D. Number Systems

Appendix E. C Legacy Code Topics

Appendix F. Preprocessor

Appendix G. ATM Case Study Code

Appendix H. UML 2: Additional Diagram Types

Appendix I. C++ Internet and Web Resources

Appendix J. Introduction to XHTML

Appendix K. XHTML Special Characters

Appendix L. Using the Visual Studio .NET Debugger

Appendix M. Using the GNU C++ Debugger


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C++ How to Program
C++ How to Program (5th Edition)
ISBN: 0131857576
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 627
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