To get started, real numbers are those positive or negative numbers we're used to thinking about in our daily lives. Examples of real numbers are 0.3, –2.2, 5.1, etc. Keeping this in mind, we see how a real number can be represented by a point on a one-dimensional axis, called the real axis, as shown in Figure A-1.

Figure A-1. The representation of a real number as a point on the one-dimensional real axis.

We can, in fact, consider that all real numbers correspond to all of the points on the real axis line on a one-to-one basis.

A complex number, unlike a real number, has two parts: a real part and an imaginary part. Just as a real number can be considered to be a point on the one-dimensional real axis, a complex number can be treated as a point on a complex plane as shown in Figure A-2. We'll use this geometrical concept to help us understand the arithmetic of complex numbers.[]

[] The complex plane representation of a complex number is sometimes called an Argand diagram—named after the French mathematician Jean Robert Argand (1768–1825).

Figure A-2. The phasor representation of the complex number C = R + jI on the complex plane.

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Chapter One. Discrete Sequences and Systems

Chapter Two. Periodic Sampling

Chapter Three. The Discrete Fourier Transform

Chapter Four. The Fast Fourier Transform

Chapter Five. Finite Impulse Response Filters

Chapter Six. Infinite Impulse Response Filters

Chapter Seven. Specialized Lowpass FIR Filters

Chapter Eight. Quadrature Signals

Chapter Nine. The Discrete Hilbert Transform

Chapter Ten. Sample Rate Conversion

Chapter Eleven. Signal Averaging

Chapter Twelve. Digital Data Formats and Their Effects

Chapter Thirteen. Digital Signal Processing Tricks

Appendix A. The Arithmetic of Complex Numbers

Appendix B. Closed Form of a Geometric Series

Appendix C. Time Reversal and the DFT

Appendix D. Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation

Appendix E. Decibels (dB and dBm)

Appendix F. Digital Filter Terminology

Appendix G. Frequency Sampling Filter Derivations

Appendix H. Frequency Sampling Filter Design Tables

Understanding Digital Signal Processing
Understanding Digital Signal Processing (2nd Edition)
ISBN: 0131089897
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 183

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