In the pcb environment two factors limit the distance at which you can send reliable information: sensitivity and dispersion.

As you stretch the channel length to extreme distances, sensitivity-limited systems (also called loss-limited systems) fail due to insufficient signal amplitude at the receiver. This definition infers that at the limit of operating distance, the received signal would be reliably detectable if amplified. Such systems display an eye pattern with a good eye opening and a reasonable amount of jitter at the receiver, but too small a signal level to properly activate the receiver circuit.

Common causes of poor sensitivity include

**Poor control over the receiver switching thresholds. This problem is shared by many single-ended logic families, which therefore cannot tolerate any signal loss much larger than about one dB.**- Thermal or shot noise within the receiver. This difficulty is often encountered in the design of high-speed fiber- optic receivers, but not in pcb transceivers. The voltage levels used in copper -based pcb transceivers usually reside several orders of magnitude above the thermal noise floor.
- Crosstalk from alien sources.

As you stretch the channel length to extreme distances, dispersion-limited systems do not fail due to insufficient sensitivity. They fail due to signal distortion in the form of severe deterministic jitter, also called intersymbol interference (ISI). This definition implies that at the limit of operating distance, the received data eye pattern is not open, or not open sufficiently far to permit a reasonable window of operation for the sampling circuits.

Amplifying the signal does not change the performance characteristics of a dispersion-limited system, because it is not the size of the received signal that matters, but the shape . The only fix is to adopt some form of equalization or echo cancellation. Common causes of signal distortion include

**Bandwidth limitations within the transmitter circuit or transmitter package.**- High-frequency losses within the communications channel.
- Echoes and other undesirable features in the step response of the communications channel.
- Bandwidth limitations within the receiver circuit or receiver package.

A simple chart appropriate for estimating signal loss as a function of frequency, trace geometry, and dielectric material appears in Figure 5.11. The chart applies to 50-ohm single-ended striplines and 100-ohm loosely coupled differential striplines in materials with a dielectric constant of approximately 4 at 1 GHz.

Figure 5.11. This chart estimates skin effect and dielectric losses for 50-ohm single-ended striplines and 100-ohm loosely coupled differential striplines using the approximations developed in Chapter 3.

The vertical axis in the chart shows the signal lost in units of percent-signal-lost per inch. For example, the skin-effect loss for a 6-mil trace operating at a frequency of 1 GHz equals 1% of the signal amplitude for every inch traveled. The amplitude a remaining at the end of 18 inches would then be

**Equation 5.14 **

For small amounts of attenuation, you may approximate the exponential operator in [5.14] by simply adding the percentage signal lost in each inch. In the above example the approximate method estimates a signal loss of 1% per inch times 18 inches, for a total estimated loss of 18%, leaving a remaining signal amplitude of 0.82, fairly close to the value computed in [5.14]. For any percentage loss less than 25%, the correspondence between the exact method [5.14] and the simpler method of addition is better than 1 part in 20 (5% error).

To convert units of percentage-signal-lost per inch to units of dB per meter, multiply times 3.44.

Skin-effect loss curves are included for trace widths of 6, 12, and 24 mils. The trace thickness is a second-order parameter not considered in the calculation (all traces are assumed to be 1/2-oz copper striplines). The trace loss scales approximately with the inverse of trace width. Microstrips perform similarly. The same values of skin effect and dielectric loss apply equally well for 50-ohm single-ended striplines and 100-ohm loosely coupled differential striplines.

Dielectric-loss curves are included for dielectric loss tangents of 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.025. Other values of dielectric loss may be linearly interpolated on the chart from the figures shown. The skin effect and dielectric-loss effects must be summed to determine the total signal loss.

Example showing 2.5-Gb/s Serial Link

The operational characteristics of a 2.5 Gb/s link are best evaluated at a frequency of 1.25 GHz, corresponding to the maximum alternation rate for binary data operating at that speed. The loss values at this particular frequency will be highly indicative of the eye-opening loss in an actual system.

At 1.25 GHz, a 6-mil stripline trace operating on FR-4 accumulates a signal loss of roughly 1% per inch due to skin-effect loss. At an assumed dielectric loss tangent of 0.025. it accumulates another loss factor of 2% per inch due to dielectric loss. Operating at an overall distance of 8 inches, the total loss amounts to roughly 24%, a workable value provided the receiver thresholds are well centered. A modest degree of pre-emphasis would likely extend the distance at which such a link could operate .

Ordinary single-ended CMOS or bipolar TTL transceivers require that the received signal exceed V IH (or fall below V IL ) at the instant the signal is sampled. In many logic families the difference between the voltage V OH that all drivers are guaranteed to produce and the voltage V IH that all receivers are guaranteed to accept provides for a loss budget of only about 10% of the peak-to-peak signal swing. When using such a simple, unadorned transceiver, the total percentage of the signal lost, as read from Figure 5.11, must not exceed 10%. This limitation imposes a severe distance limitation on the operation of multi-gigabit data links.

The means at your disposal to improve upon any system with a sensitivity limitation include

**Select a transceiver with a larger spread between V OH and V IH (and also between V OL and V IL ). Any improvement thus obtained in the noise margin translates directly into an increased budget for signal loss.**- Select a transceiver with greater sensitivity. This strategy is the same as (1), just couched in analog terminology rather than in the terminology of ordinary digital logic.
- If the system is limited by crosstalk or other interference, then reduce the interference. Determining the influence of crosstalk on sensitivity is a matter of selectively disabling adjacent channels while measuring the sensitivity of the receiver.
- If the system is limited by self-generated noise within the receiver, then further improvements depend upon the use of a less- noisy receiver architecture, or a reduction in temperature (which tends to reduce internal thermal noise), or an increase in the transmitted signal amplitude.

Systems limited by dispersion may sometimes be improved by a change in data coding. For example, run-length limited data coding schemes that enforce DC balance produce a data spectrum with very little low-frequency content. The reception of such a coding scheme therefore depends mostly upon the spectral properties of the communications channel between some low-frequency limit (the low-frequency cutoff) and the Nyquist frequency (1/2 the data rate). To the extent that this range is smaller than the range required by ordinary binary coding (NRZ), whose spectrum extends from DC to the Nyquist frequency, the expected maximum variation in attenuation from the low-frequency limit to the Nyquist frequency is improved. Since it is the variation in attenuation across the data frequency band that determines the maximum and minimum eye height at the receiver, excising the low-frequency part of the spectrum reduces this maximum variation, resulting in a cleaner eye with less distortion. Systems limited primarily by the skin effect respond well to a change in coding because this change essentially truncates the long, lingering tail in the skin-effect step response.

In cases where the signal amplitude lies far above the thermal noise floor, but is severely distorted by AC-coupling within the communications channel, a DC-restoration circuit can completely restore the appearance of the eye. This method constitutes a type of nonlinear equalization. One type of DC-restoration circuit is discussed in the following article "SONET Data Coding."

Means of linear equalization are discussed in Section 3.14, "Linear Equalization: Long Backplane Trace Example," and in Section 8.2, "UTP Transmission Example: 10BASE-T."

POINTS TO REMEMBER

- As you stretch the channel length to extreme distances, sensitivity-limited systems fail due to insufficient signal amplitude at the receiver.
- Dispersion-limited systems fail due to signal distortion, also called intersymbol interference (ISI).
- Amplifying the received signal does not change the performance of a dispersion-limited system. Equalization is what helps.
- Systems limited by dispersion may sometimes be improved by a change in data coding.

5.2.1 SONET Data Coding

POINT TO REMEMBER

- A non-linear DC restoration system can un-do the effects of AC coupling.

Fundamentals

- Impedance of Linear, Time-Invariant, Lumped-Element Circuits
- Power Ratios
- Rules of Scaling
- The Concept of Resonance
- Extra for Experts: Maximal Linear System Response to a Digital Input

Transmission Line Parameters

- Transmission Line Parameters
- Telegraphers Equations
- Derivation of Telegraphers Equations
- Ideal Transmission Line
- DC Resistance
- DC Conductance
- Skin Effect
- Skin-Effect Inductance
- Modeling Internal Impedance
- Concentric-Ring Skin-Effect Model
- Proximity Effect
- Surface Roughness
- Dielectric Effects
- Impedance in Series with the Return Path
- Slow-Wave Mode On-Chip

Performance Regions

- Performance Regions
- Signal Propagation Model
- Hierarchy of Regions
- Necessary Mathematics: Input Impedance and Transfer Function
- Lumped-Element Region
- RC Region
- LC Region (Constant-Loss Region)
- Skin-Effect Region
- Dielectric Loss Region
- Waveguide Dispersion Region
- Summary of Breakpoints Between Regions
- Equivalence Principle for Transmission Media
- Scaling Copper Transmission Media
- Scaling Multimode Fiber-Optic Cables
- Linear Equalization: Long Backplane Trace Example
- Adaptive Equalization: Accelerant Networks Transceiver

Frequency-Domain Modeling

- Frequency-Domain Modeling
- Going Nonlinear
- Approximations to the Fourier Transform
- Discrete Time Mapping
- Other Limitations of the FFT
- Normalizing the Output of an FFT Routine
- Useful Fourier Transform-Pairs
- Effect of Inadequate Sampling Rate
- Implementation of Frequency-Domain Simulation
- Embellishments
- Checking the Output of Your FFT Routine

Pcb (printed-circuit board) Traces

- Pcb (printed-circuit board) Traces
- Pcb Signal Propagation
- Limits to Attainable Distance
- Pcb Noise and Interference
- Pcb Connectors
- Modeling Vias
- The Future of On-Chip Interconnections

Differential Signaling

- Differential Signaling
- Single-Ended Circuits
- Two-Wire Circuits
- Differential Signaling
- Differential and Common-Mode Voltages and Currents
- Differential and Common-Mode Velocity
- Common-Mode Balance
- Common-Mode Range
- Differential to Common-Mode Conversion
- Differential Impedance
- Pcb Configurations
- Pcb Applications
- Intercabinet Applications
- LVDS Signaling

Generic Building-Cabling Standards

- Generic Building-Cabling Standards
- Generic Cabling Architecture
- SNR Budgeting
- Glossary of Cabling Terms
- Preferred Cable Combinations
- FAQ: Building-Cabling Practices
- Crossover Wiring
- Plenum-Rated Cables
- Laying Cables in an Uncooled Attic Space
- FAQ: Older Cable Types

100-Ohm Balanced Twisted-Pair Cabling

- 100-Ohm Balanced Twisted-Pair Cabling
- UTP Signal Propagation
- UTP Transmission Example: 10BASE-T
- UTP Noise and Interference
- UTP Connectors
- Issues with Screening
- Category-3 UTP at Elevated Temperature

150-Ohm STP-A Cabling

- 150-Ohm STP-A Cabling
- 150- W STP-A Signal Propagation
- 150- W STP-A Noise and Interference
- 150- W STP-A: Skew
- 150- W STP-A: Radiation and Safety
- 150- W STP-A: Comparison with UTP
- 150- W STP-A Connectors

Coaxial Cabling

- Coaxial Cabling
- Coaxial Signal Propagation
- Coaxial Cable Noise and Interference
- Coaxial Cable Connectors

Fiber-Optic Cabling

- Fiber-Optic Cabling
- Making Glass Fiber
- Finished Core Specifications
- Cabling the Fiber
- Wavelengths of Operation
- Multimode Glass Fiber-Optic Cabling
- Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Cabling

Clock Distribution

- Clock Distribution
- Extra Fries, Please
- Arithmetic of Clock Skew
- Clock Repeaters
- Stripline vs. Microstrip Delay
- Importance of Terminating Clock Lines
- Effect of Clock Receiver Thresholds
- Effect of Split Termination
- Intentional Delay Adjustments
- Driving Multiple Loads with Source Termination
- Daisy-Chain Clock Distribution
- The Jitters
- Power Supply Filtering for Clock Sources, Repeaters, and PLL Circuits
- Intentional Clock Modulation
- Reduced-Voltage Signaling
- Controlling Crosstalk on Clock Lines
- Reducing Emissions

Time-Domain Simulation Tools and Methods

- Ringing in a New Era
- Signal Integrity Simulation Process
- The Underlying Simulation Engine
- IBIS (I/O Buffer Information Specification)
- IBIS: History and Future Direction
- IBIS: Issues with Interpolation
- IBIS: Issues with SSO Noise
- Nature of EMC Work
- Power and Ground Resonance

Points to Remember

Appendix A. Building a Signal Integrity Department

Appendix B. Calculation of Loss Slope

Appendix C. Two-Port Analysis

- Appendix C. Two-Port Analysis
- Simple Cases Involving Transmission Lines
- Fully Configured Transmission Line
- Complicated Configurations

Appendix D. Accuracy of Pi Model

Appendix E. erf( )

Notes

High-Speed Signal Propagation[c] Advanced Black Magic

ISBN: 013084408X

EAN: N/A

EAN: N/A

Year: 2005

Pages: 163

Pages: 163

- Chapter II Information Search on the Internet: A Causal Model
- Chapter III Two Models of Online Patronage: Why Do Consumers Shop on the Internet?
- Chapter VII Objective and Perceived Complexity and Their Impacts on Internet Communication
- Chapter IX Extrinsic Plus Intrinsic Human Factors Influencing the Web Usage
- Chapter XII Web Design and E-Commerce

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