SQL

We now overview SQL in the context of the Books database. Later in the chapter, you will build C# applications that execute SQL queries and access their results using ADO.NET technology. Though the Visual C# IDE provides visual tools that hide some of the SQL used to manipulate databases, it is nevertheless important to understand SQL basics. Knowing the types of operations you can perform will help you develop more advanced database-intensive applications.

Figure 20.10 lists some common SQL keywords used to form complete SQL statementswe discuss these keywords in the next several subsections. Other SQL keywords exist, but they are beyond the scope of this text. For additional information on SQL, please refer to the URLs listed in Section 20.11, Web Resources.

Figure 20.10. Common SQL keywords.

SQL keyword

Description

SELECT

Retrieves data from one or more tables.

FROM

Specifies the tables involved in a query. Required in every query.

WHERE

Specifies optional criteria for selection that determine the rows to be retrieved, deleted or updated.

ORDER BY

Specifies optional criteria for ordering rows (e.g., ascending, descending).

INNER JOIN

Specifies optional operator for merging rows from multiple tables.

INSERT

Inserts rows in a specified table.

UPDATE

Updates rows in a specified table.

DELETE

Deletes rows from a specified table.

20.4.1. Basic SELECT Query

Let us consider several SQL queries that retrieve information from database Books. A SQL query "selects" rows and columns from one or more tables in a database. Such selections are performed by queries with the SELECT keyword. The basic form of a SELECT query is

SELECT * FROM tableName

in which the asterisk (*) indicates that all the columns from the tableName table should be retrieved. For example, to retrieve all the data in the Authors table, use

SELECT * FROM Authors

Note that the rows of the Authors table are not guaranteed to be returned in any particular order. You will learn how to specify criteria for sorting rows in Section 20.4.3.

Most programs do not require all the data in a table. To retrieve only specific columns from a table, replace the asterisk (*) with a comma-separated list of the column names. For example, to retrieve only the columns AuthorID and LastName for all the rows in the Authors table, use the query

SELECT AuthorID, LastName FROM Authors

This query returns only the data listed in Fig. 20.11.

Figure 20.11. AuthorID and LastName data from the Authors table.

AuthorID

LastName

1

Deitel

2

Deitel

3

Goldberg

4

Choffnes

 

20.4.2. WHERE Clause

When users search a database for rows that satisfy certain selection criteria (formally called predicates), only rows that satisfy the selection criteria are selected. SQL uses the optional WHERE clause in a query to specify the selection criteria for the query. The basic form of a query with selection criteria is

SELECT columnName1, columnName2, ... FROM tableName WHERE criteria

For example, to select the Title, EditionNumber and Copyright columns from table Titles for which the Copyright date is more recent than 2004, use the query

SELECT Title, EditionNumber, Copyright
FROM Titles
WHERE Copyright > '2004'

Figure 20.12 shows the result of the preceding query.

Figure 20.12. Titles with copyright dates after 2004 from table Titles.

Title

EditionNumber

Copyright

Java How to Program

6

2005

Visual C# 2005 How to Program

2

2006

C++ How to Program

5

2005

Visual Basic 2005 How to Program

3

2006

The WHERE clause criteria can contain the relational operators <, >, <=, >=, = (equality), <> (inequality) and LIKE, as well as the logical operators AND, OR and NOT (discussed in Section 20.4.6). Operator LIKE is used for pattern matching with wildcard characters percent (%) and underscore (_). Pattern matching allows SQL to search for strings that match a given pattern.

A pattern that contains a percent character (%) searches for strings that have zero or more characters at the percent character's position in the pattern. For example, the following query locates the rows of all the authors whose last names start with the letter D:

SELECT AuthorID, FirstName, LastName
FROM Authors
WHERE LastName LIKE 'D%'

The preceding query selects the two rows shown in Fig. 20.13, because two of the four authors in our database have a last name starting with the letter D (followed by zero or more characters). The % in the WHERE clause's LIKE pattern indicates that any number of characters can appear after the letter D in the LastName column. Note that the pattern string is surrounded by single-quote characters.

Figure 20.13. Authors from the Authors table whose last names start with D.

AuthorID

FirstName

LastName

1

Harvey

Deitel

2

Paul

Deitel

An underscore (_) in the pattern string indicates a single wildcard character at that position in the pattern. For example, the following query locates the rows of all the authors whose last names start with any character (specified by _), followed by the letter h, followed by any number of additional characters (specified by %):

SELECT AuthorID, FirstName, LastName
FROM Authors
WHERE LastName LIKE '_h%'

The preceding query produces the row shown in Fig. 20.14, because only one author in our database has a last name that contains the letter h as its second letter.

Figure 20.14. The only author from the Authors table whose last name contains h as the second letter.

AuthorID

FirstName

LastName

4

David

Choffnes

 

20.4.3. ORDER BY Clause

The rows in the result of a query can be sorted into ascending or descending order by using the optional ORDER BY clause. The basic form of a query with an ORDER BY clause is

SELECT columnName1, columnName2, ... FROM tableName ORDER BY column ASC
SELECT columnName1, columnName2, ... FROM tableName ORDER BY column DESC

where ASC specifies ascending order (lowest to highest), DESC specifies descending order (highest to lowest) and column specifies the column on which the sort is based. For example, to obtain the list of authors in ascending order by last name (Fig. 20.15), use the query

SELECT AuthorID, FirstName, LastName
FROM Authors
ORDER BY LastName ASC

The default sorting order is ascending, so ASC is optional in the preceding query.

Figure 20.15. Authors from table Authors in ascending order by LastName.

AuthorID

FirstName

LastName

4

David

Choffnes

1

Harvey

Deitel

2

Paul

Deitel

3

Andrew

Goldberg

To obtain the same list of authors in descending order by last name (Fig. 20.16), use the query

SELECT AuthorID, FirstName, LastName
FROM Authors
ORDER BY LastName DESC

Multiple columns can be used for sorting with an ORDER BY clause of the form

ORDER BY column1 sortingOrder, column2 sortingOrder, ...

where sortingOrder is either ASC or DESC. Note that the sortingOrder does not have to be identical for each column. For example, the query

SELECT Title, EditionNumber, Copyright
FROM Titles
ORDER BY Copyright DESC, Title ASC

returns the rows of the Titles table sorted first in descending order by copyright date, then in ascending order by title (Fig. 20.17). This means that rows with higher Copyright values are returned before rows with lower Copyright values, and any rows that have the same Copyright values are sorted in ascending order by title.

Figure 20.16. Authors from table Authors in descending order by LastName.

AuthorID

FirstName

LastName

3

Andrew

Goldberg

1

Harvey

Deitel

2

Paul

Deitel

4

David

Choffnes

Figure 20.17. Data from Titles in descending order by Copyright and ascending order by Title.

Title

EditionNumber

Copyright

Visual Basic 2005 How to Program

3

2006

Visual C# 2005 How to Program

2

2006

C++ How to Program

5

2005

Java How to Program

6

2005

C How to Program

4

2004

Internet & World Wide Web How to Program

3

2004

Operating Systems

3

2004

The WHERE and ORDER BY clauses can be combined in one query. For example, the query

SELECT ISBN, Title, EditionNumber, Copyright
FROM Titles
WHERE Title LIKE '%How to Program'
ORDER BY Title ASC

returns the ISBN, Title, EditionNumber and Copyright of each book in the Titles table that has a Title ending with "How to Program" and sorts them in ascending order by Title. The query results are shown in Fig. 20.18.

Figure 20.18. Books from table Titles whose titles end with Howto Program in ascending order by Title.

(This item is displayed on page 1005 in the print version)

ISBN

Title

EditionNumber

Copyright

0131426443

C How to Program

4

2004

0131857576

C++ How to Program

5

2005

0131450913

Internet & World Wide Web How to Program

3

2004

0131483986

Java How to Program

6

2005

0131869000

Visual Basic 2005 How to Program

3

2006

0131525239

Visual C# 2005 How to Program

2

2006

 

20.4.4. Merging Data from Multiple Tables: INNER JOIN

Database designers typically normalize databasesi.e., split related data into separate tables to ensure that a database does not store redundant data. For example, the Books database has tables Authors and Titles. We use an AuthorISBN table to store "links" between authors and titles. If we did not separate this information into individual tables, we would need to include author information with each entry in the Titles table. This would result in the database storing duplicate author information for authors who wrote more than one book.

Often, it is desirable to merge data from multiple tables into a single result. This is referred to as joining the tables, and is specified by an INNER JOIN operator in the query. An INNER JOIN merges rows from two tables by testing for matching values in a column that is common to the tables. The basic form of an INNER JOIN is:

SELECT columnName1, columnName2, ...
FROM table1 INNER JOIN table2
 ON table1.columnName = table2.columnName

The ON clause of the INNER JOIN specifies the columns from each table that are compared to determine which rows are merged. For example, the following query produces a list of authors accompanied by the ISBNs for books written by each author:

SELECT FirstName, LastName, ISBN
FROM Authors INNER JOIN AuthorISBN
 ON Authors.AuthorID = AuthorISBN.AuthorID
ORDER BY LastName, FirstName

The query combines the FirstName and LastName columns from table Authors and the ISBN column from table AuthorISBN, sorting the results in ascending order by LastName and FirstName. Note the use of the syntax tableName.columnName in the ON clause. This syntax (called a qualified name) specifies the columns from each table that should be compared to join the tables. The "tableName." syntax is required if the columns have the same name in both tables. The same syntax can be used in any query to distinguish columns that have the same name in different tables.

Common Programming Error 20 4

In a SQL query, failure to qualify names for columns that have the same name in two or more tables is an error.

As always, the query can contain an ORDER BY clause. Figure 20.19 depicts the results of the preceding query, ordered by LastName and FirstName.

Figure 20.19. Authors and ISBNs for their books in ascending order by LastName and FirstName.

FirstName

LastName

ISBN

David

Choffnes

0131828274

Harvey

Deitel

0131869000

Harvey

Deitel

0131525239

Harvey

Deitel

0131483986

Harvey

Deitel

0131857576

Harvey

Deitel

0131426443

Harvey

Deitel

0131450913

Harvey

Deitel

0131828274

Paul

Deitel

0131869000

Paul

Deitel

0131525239

Paul

Deitel

0131483986

Paul

Deitel

0131857576

Paul

Deitel

0131426443

Paul

Deitel

0131450913

Paul

Deitel

0131828274

Andrew

Goldberg

0131450913

 

20.4.5. INSERT Statement

The INSERT statement inserts a row into a table. The basic form of this statement is

INSERT INTO tableName ( columnName1, columnName2, ..., columnNameN )
VALUES ( value1, value2, ..., valueN )

where tableName is the table in which to insert the row. The tableName is followed by a comma-separated list of column names in parentheses (this list is not required if the INSERT operation specifies a value for every column of the table in the correct order). The list of column names is followed by the SQL keyword VALUES and a comma-separated list of values in parentheses. The values specified here must match up with the columns specified after the table name in both order and type (e.g., if columnName1 is supposed to be the FirstName column, then value1 should be a string in single quotes representing the first name). Always explicitly list the columns when inserting rowsif the order of the columns in the table changes, using only VALUES may cause an error. The INSERT statement

INSERT INTO Authors ( FirstName, LastName )
VALUES ( 'Sue', 'Smith' )

inserts a row into the Authors table. The statement indicates that the values 'Sue' and 'Smith' are provided for the FirstName and LastName columns, respectively.

We do not specify an AuthorID in this example because AuthorID is an identity column in the Authors table (see Fig. 20.3). For every row added to this table, SQL Server assigns a unique AuthorID value that is the next value in an autoincremented sequence (i.e., 1, 2, 3 and so on). In this case, Sue Smith would be assigned AuthorID number 5. Figure 20.20 shows the Authors table after the INSERT operation. Not every DBMS supports identity or autoincremented columns.

Figure 20.20. Table Authors after an INSERT operation.

AuthorID

FirstName

LastName

1

Harvey

Deitel

2

Paul

Deitel

3

Andrew

Goldberg

4

David

Choffnes

5

Sue

Smith

Common Programming Error 20 5

It is an error to specify a value for an identity column.

Common Programming Error 20 6

SQL uses the single-quote (') character to delimit strings. To specify a string containing a single quote (e.g., O'Malley) in a SQL statement, there must be two single quotes in the position where the single-quote character appears in the string (e.g., 'O''Malley'). The first of the two single-quote characters acts as an escape character for the second. Not escaping single-quote characters in a string that is part of a SQL statement is a syntax error.

 

20.4.6. UPDATE Statement

An UPDATE statement modifies data in a table. The basic form of the UPDATE statement is

UPDATE tableName
SET columnName1 = value1, columnName2 = value2, ..., columnNameN = valueN
WHERE criteria

where tableName is the table to update. The tableName is followed by keyword SET and a comma-separated list of column name-value pairs in the format columnName = value. The optional WHERE clause provides criteria that determine which rows to update. Though not required, the WHERE clause is typically used, unless a change is to be made to every row. The UPDATE statement

UPDATE Authors
SET LastName = 'Jones'
WHERE LastName = 'Smith' AND FirstName = 'Sue'

updates a row in the Authors table. Keyword AND is a logical operator that, like the C# && operator, returns true if and only if both of its operands are true. Thus, the preceding statement assigns to LastName the value Jones for the row in which LastName is equal to Smith and FirstName is equal to Sue. [Note: If there are multiple rows with the first name "Sue" and the last name "Smith," this statement modifies all such rows to have the last name "Jones."] Figure 20.21 shows the Authors table after the UPDATE operation has taken place. SQL also provides other logical operators, such as OR and NOT, which behave like their C# counterparts.

Figure 20.21. Table Authors after an UPDATE operation.

AuthorID

FirstName

LastName

1

Harvey

Deitel

2

Paul

Deitel

3

Andrew

Goldberg

4

David

Choffnes

5

Sue

Jones

 

20.4.7. DELETE Statement

A DELETE statement removes rows from a table. The basic form of a DELETE statement is

DELETE FROM tableName WHERE criteria

where tableName is the table from which to delete. The optional WHERE clause specifies the criteria used to determine which rows to delete. The DELETE statement

DELETE FROM Authors
WHERE LastName = 'Jones' AND FirstName = 'Sue'

deletes the row for Sue Jones in the Authors table. DELETE statements can delete multiple rows if the rows all meet the criteria in the WHERE clause. Figure 20.22 shows the Authors table after the DELETE operation has taken place.

Figure 20.22. Table Authors after a DELETE operation.

AuthorID

FirstName

LastName

1

Harvey

Deitel

2

Paul

Deitel

3

Andrew

Goldberg

4

David

Choffnes

SQL Wrap-Up

This concludes our SQL introduction. We demonstrated several commonly used SQL keywords, formed SQL queries that retrieved data from databases and formed other SQL statements that manipulated data in a database. Next, we introduce the ADO.NET object model, which allows C# applications to interact with databases. As you will see, ADO.NET objects manipulate databases using SQL statements like those presented here.

Preface

Index

    Introduction to Computers, the Internet and Visual C#

    Introduction to the Visual C# 2005 Express Edition IDE

    Introduction to C# Applications

    Introduction to Classes and Objects

    Control Statements: Part 1

    Control Statements: Part 2

    Methods: A Deeper Look

    Arrays

    Classes and Objects: A Deeper Look

    Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance

    Polymorphism, Interfaces & Operator Overloading

    Exception Handling

    Graphical User Interface Concepts: Part 1

    Graphical User Interface Concepts: Part 2

    Multithreading

    Strings, Characters and Regular Expressions

    Graphics and Multimedia

    Files and Streams

    Extensible Markup Language (XML)

    Database, SQL and ADO.NET

    ASP.NET 2.0, Web Forms and Web Controls

    Web Services

    Networking: Streams-Based Sockets and Datagrams

    Searching and Sorting

    Data Structures

    Generics

    Collections

    Appendix A. Operator Precedence Chart

    Appendix B. Number Systems

    Appendix C. Using the Visual Studio 2005 Debugger

    Appendix D. ASCII Character Set

    Appendix E. Unicode®

    Appendix F. Introduction to XHTML: Part 1

    Appendix G. Introduction to XHTML: Part 2

    Appendix H. HTML/XHTML Special Characters

    Appendix I. HTML/XHTML Colors

    Appendix J. ATM Case Study Code

    Appendix K. UML 2: Additional Diagram Types

    Appendix L. Simple Types

    Index



    Visual C# How to Program
    Visual C# 2005 How to Program (2nd Edition)
    ISBN: 0131525239
    EAN: 2147483647
    Year: 2004
    Pages: 600

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