F.8. Special Characters and More Line Breaks

When marking up text, certain characters or symbols (e.g., <) may be difficult to embed directly into an XHTML document. Some keyboards do not provide these symbols, or the presence of these symbols may cause syntax errors. For example, the markup


if x < 10 then increment x by 1

results in a syntax error because it uses the less-than character (<), which is reserved for start tags and end tags such as


. XHTML provides character entity references (in the form &code;) for representing special characters. We could correct the previous line by writing


if x < 10 then increment x by 1

which uses the character entity reference < for the less-than symbol.

Figure F.9 demonstrates how to use special characters in an XHTML document. For a list of special characters, see Appendix A, XHTML Special Characters.

Figure F.9. Special characters in XHTML.

 1  "1.0"?>
 2  "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1//EN"
 3 "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/DTD/xhtml11.dtd">
"http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> 9 10 Internet and WWW How to Program - Contact Page 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

19 Click 20 <a href="</span"> "mailto:deitel@deitel.com">here</a> 21 to open an e-mail message addressed to 22 deitel@deitel.com. 23

24 25 26 27

All information on this site is © 28 Deitel & Associates, Inc. 2004.

29 30 31 32 33 34

You may download 3.14 x 102 35 characters worth of information from this site. 36 Only one download per hour is permitted.

37 38

Note: < ¼ of the information 39 presented here is updated daily.

40 41 42

Lines 2728 contain other special characters, which can be expressed as either character entity references (i.e., word abbreviations such as amp for ampersand and copy for copyright) or numeric character referencesdecimal or hexadecimal (hex) values representing special characters. For example, the & character is represented in decimal and hexadecimal notation as & and &, respectively. Hexadecimal numbers are base 16 numbersdigits in a hexadecimal number have values from 0 to 15 (a total of 16 different values). The letters AF represent the hexadecimal digits corresponding to decimal values 1015. Thus in hexadecimal notation we can have numbers like 876 consisting solely of decimal-like digits, numbers like DA19F consisting of digits and letters and numbers like DCB consisting solely of letters. We discuss hexadecimal numbers in detail in Appendix E, Number Systems.

In lines 3436, we introduce three new elements. Most browsers render the del element as strike-through text. With this format users can easily indicate document revisions. To superscript text (i.e., raise text on a line with a decreased font size) or subscript text (i.e., lower text on a line with a decreased font size), use the sup or sub element, respectively. We also use character entity reference < for a less-than sign and ¼ for the fraction 1/4 (line 38).

In addition to special characters, this document introduces a horizontal rule, indicated by the

tag in line 25. Most browsers render a horizontal rule as a horizontal line. The

tag also inserts a line break above and below the horizontal line.



    Introduction to Computers, the Internet and Visual C#

    Introduction to the Visual C# 2005 Express Edition IDE

    Introduction to C# Applications

    Introduction to Classes and Objects

    Control Statements: Part 1

    Control Statements: Part 2

    Methods: A Deeper Look


    Classes and Objects: A Deeper Look

    Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance

    Polymorphism, Interfaces & Operator Overloading

    Exception Handling

    Graphical User Interface Concepts: Part 1

    Graphical User Interface Concepts: Part 2


    Strings, Characters and Regular Expressions

    Graphics and Multimedia

    Files and Streams

    Extensible Markup Language (XML)

    Database, SQL and ADO.NET

    ASP.NET 2.0, Web Forms and Web Controls

    Web Services

    Networking: Streams-Based Sockets and Datagrams

    Searching and Sorting

    Data Structures



    Appendix A. Operator Precedence Chart

    Appendix B. Number Systems

    Appendix C. Using the Visual Studio 2005 Debugger

    Appendix D. ASCII Character Set

    Appendix E. Unicode®

    Appendix F. Introduction to XHTML: Part 1

    Appendix G. Introduction to XHTML: Part 2

    Appendix H. HTML/XHTML Special Characters

    Appendix I. HTML/XHTML Colors

    Appendix J. ATM Case Study Code

    Appendix K. UML 2: Additional Diagram Types

    Appendix L. Simple Types


    Visual C# How to Program
    Visual C# 2005 How to Program (2nd Edition)
    ISBN: 0131525239
    EAN: 2147483647
    Year: 2004
    Pages: 600

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