Most applications perform arithmetic calculations. The arithmetic operators are summarized in Fig. 3.22. Note the use of various special symbols not used in algebra. The asterisk (*) indicates multiplication, and the percent sign (%) is the remainder operator (called modulus in some languages), which we will discuss shortly. The arithmetic operators in Fig. 3.22 are binary operatorsfor example, the expression f + 7 contains the binary operator + and the two operands f and 7.
C# operation 
Arithmetic operator 
Algebraic expression 
C# expression 

Addition 
+ 
f + 7 
f + 7 
Subtraction 
p c 
p  c 

Multiplication 
* 
b · m 
b * m 
Division 
/ 
x / y or or x ÷ y 
x / y 
Remainder 
% 
r mod s 
r % s 
Integer division yields an integer quotientfor example, the expression 7 / 4 evaluates to 1, and the expression 17 / 5 evaluates to 3. Any fractional part in integer division is simply discarded (i.e., truncated)no rounding occurs. C# provides the remainder operator, %, which yields the remainder after division. The expression x % y yields the remainder after x is divided by y. Thus, 7 % 4 yields 3, and 17 % 5 yields 2. This operator is most commonly used with integer operands, but can also be used with floats, doubles, and decimals. In the chapter's exercises and in later chapters, we consider several interesting applications of the remainder operator, such as determining whether one number is a multiple of another.
Arithmetic expressions must be written in straightline form to facilitate entering applications into the computer. Thus, expressions such as "a divided by b" must be written as a / b, so that all constants, variables and operators appear in a straight line. The following algebraic notation is generally not acceptable to compilers:
Parentheses are used to group terms in C# expressions in the same manner as in algebraic expressions. For example, to multiply a times the quantity b + c, we write
a * ( b + c )
If an expression contains nested parentheses, such as
( ( a + b ) * c )
the expression in the innermost set of parentheses (a + b in this case) is evaluated first.
C# applies the operators in arithmetic expressions in a precise sequence determined by the following rules of operator precedence, which are generally the same as those followed in algebra (Fig. 3.23):
Operator(s) 
Operation(s) 
Order of evaluation (associativity) 

Evaluated first 

* / % 
Multiplication Division Remainder 
If there are several operators of this type, they are evaluated from left to right. 
Evaluated next 

+  
Addition Subtraction 
If there are several operators of this type, they are evaluated from left to right. 
These rules enable C# to apply operators in the correct order. When we say that operators are applied from left to right, we are referring to their associativity. You will see that some operators associate from right to left. Figure 3.23 summarizes these rules of operator precedence. The table will be expanded as additional operators are introduced. A complete precedence chart is included in Appendix A.
Now let us consider several expressions in light of the rules of operator precedence. Each example lists an algebraic expression and its C# equivalent. The following is an example of an arithmetic mean (average) of five terms:
Algebra: 

C#: 
m = ( a + b + c + d + e ) / 5; 
The parentheses are required because division has higher precedence than addition. The entire quantity ( a + b + c + d + e ) is to be divided by 5. If the parentheses are erroneously omitted, we obtain a + b + c + d + e / 5, which evaluates as
The following is an example of the equation of a straight line:
Algebra: 
y = mx + b; 
C#: 
y = m * x + b; 
No parentheses are required. The multiplication operator is applied first because multiplication has a higher precedence than addition. The assignment occurs last because it has a lower precedence than multiplication or addition.
The following example contains remainder (%), multiplication, division, addition and subtraction operations:
The circled numbers under the statement indicate the order in which C# applies the operators. The multiplication, remainder and division operations are evaluated first in lefttoright order (i.e., they associate from left to right), because they have higher precedence than addition and subtraction. The addition and subtraction operations are evaluated next. These operations are also applied from left to right.
To develop a better understanding of the rules of operator precedence, consider the evaluation of a seconddegree polynomial (y = ax2 + bx + c):
The circled numbers indicate the order in which C# applies the operators. The multiplication operations are evaluated first in lefttoright order (i.e., they associate from left to right), because they have higher precedence than addition. The addition operations are evaluated next and are applied from left to right. There is no arithmetic operator for exponentiation in C#, so x2 is represented as x * x. Section 6.4 shows an alternative for performing exponentiation in C#.
Suppose that a, b, c and x in the preceding seconddegree polynomial are initialized (given values) as follows: a = 2, b = 3, c = 7 and x = 5. Figure 3.24 illustrates the order in which the operators are applied.
Figure 3.24. Order in which a seconddegree polynomial is evaluated.
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As in algebra, it is acceptable to place unnecessary parentheses in an expression to make the expression clearer. These are called redundant parentheses. For example, the preceding assignment statement might be parenthesized to highlight its terms as follows:
y = ( a * x * x ) + ( b * x ) + c;
Preface
Index
Introduction to Computers, the Internet and Visual C#
Introduction to the Visual C# 2005 Express Edition IDE
Introduction to C# Applications
Introduction to Classes and Objects
Control Statements: Part 1
Control Statements: Part 2
Methods: A Deeper Look
Arrays
Classes and Objects: A Deeper Look
ObjectOriented Programming: Inheritance
Polymorphism, Interfaces & Operator Overloading
Exception Handling
Graphical User Interface Concepts: Part 1
Graphical User Interface Concepts: Part 2
Multithreading
Strings, Characters and Regular Expressions
Graphics and Multimedia
Files and Streams
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
Database, SQL and ADO.NET
ASP.NET 2.0, Web Forms and Web Controls
Web Services
Networking: StreamsBased Sockets and Datagrams
Searching and Sorting
Data Structures
Generics
Collections
Appendix A. Operator Precedence Chart
Appendix B. Number Systems
Appendix C. Using the Visual Studio 2005 Debugger
Appendix D. ASCII Character Set
Appendix E. Unicode®
Appendix F. Introduction to XHTML: Part 1
Appendix G. Introduction to XHTML: Part 2
Appendix H. HTML/XHTML Special Characters
Appendix I. HTML/XHTML Colors
Appendix J. ATM Case Study Code
Appendix K. UML 2: Additional Diagram Types
Appendix L. Simple Types
Index