Notes on Declaring and Using Methods

You have seen three ways to call a method:

  1. Using a method name by itself to call a method of the same classsuch as Maximum( number1, number2, number3 ) in line 18 of Fig. 7.3.
  2. Using a variable that contains a reference to an object, followed by the dot (.) operator and the method name to call a non-static method of the referenced objectsuch as the method call in line 9 of Fig. 7.4, maximumFinder.DetermineMaximum(), which calls a method of class MaximumFinder from the Main method of MaximumFinderTest.
  3. Using the class name and the dot (.) operator to call a static method of a classsuch as Math.Sqrt( 900.0 ) in Section 7.3.

Note that a static method can call only other static methods of the same class directly (i.e., using the method name by itself) and can manipulate only static variables in the same class directly. To access the class's non-static members, a static method must use a reference to an object of the class. Recall that static methods relate to a class as a whole, whereas non-static methods are associated with a specific instance (object) of the class and may manipulate the instance variables of that object. Many objects of a class, each with its own copies of the instance variables, may exist at the same time. Suppose a static method were to invoke a non-static method directly. How would the method know which object's instance variables to manipulate? What would happen if no objects of the class existed at the time the non-static method was invoked? Thus, C# does not allow a static method to access non-static members of the same class directly.

There are three ways to return control to the statement that calls a method. If the method does not return a result, control returns when the program flow reaches the method-ending right brace or when the statement

return;

is executed. If the method returns a result, the statement

return expression;

evaluates the expression, then returns the result (and control) to the caller.

Common Programming Error 7 4

Declaring a method outside the body of a class declaration or inside the body of another method is a syntax error.

Common Programming Error 7 5

Omitting the return type in a method declaration is a syntax error.

Common Programming Error 7 6

Placing a semicolon after the right parenthesis enclosing the parameter list of a method declaration is a syntax error.

Common Programming Error 7 7

Redeclaring a method parameter as a local variable in the method's body is a compilation error.

Common Programming Error 7 8

Forgetting to return a value from a method that should return a value is a compilation error. If a return type other than void is specified, the method must contain a return statement that returns a value consistent with the method's return type. Returning a value from a method whose return type has been declared void is a compilation error.


Preface

Index

    Introduction to Computers, the Internet and Visual C#

    Introduction to the Visual C# 2005 Express Edition IDE

    Introduction to C# Applications

    Introduction to Classes and Objects

    Control Statements: Part 1

    Control Statements: Part 2

    Methods: A Deeper Look

    Arrays

    Classes and Objects: A Deeper Look

    Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance

    Polymorphism, Interfaces & Operator Overloading

    Exception Handling

    Graphical User Interface Concepts: Part 1

    Graphical User Interface Concepts: Part 2

    Multithreading

    Strings, Characters and Regular Expressions

    Graphics and Multimedia

    Files and Streams

    Extensible Markup Language (XML)

    Database, SQL and ADO.NET

    ASP.NET 2.0, Web Forms and Web Controls

    Web Services

    Networking: Streams-Based Sockets and Datagrams

    Searching and Sorting

    Data Structures

    Generics

    Collections

    Appendix A. Operator Precedence Chart

    Appendix B. Number Systems

    Appendix C. Using the Visual Studio 2005 Debugger

    Appendix D. ASCII Character Set

    Appendix E. Unicode®

    Appendix F. Introduction to XHTML: Part 1

    Appendix G. Introduction to XHTML: Part 2

    Appendix H. HTML/XHTML Special Characters

    Appendix I. HTML/XHTML Colors

    Appendix J. ATM Case Study Code

    Appendix K. UML 2: Additional Diagram Types

    Appendix L. Simple Types

    Index



    Visual C# How to Program
    Visual C# 2005 How to Program (2nd Edition)
    ISBN: 0131525239
    EAN: 2147483647
    Year: 2004
    Pages: 600

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