Synchronized Collections

In Chapter 23, we discuss multithreading. The collections in the collections framework are unsynchronized by default, so they can operate efficiently when multithreading is not required. Because they are unsynchronized, however, concurrent access to a Collection by multiple threads could cause indeterminate results or fatal errors. To prevent potential threading problems, synchronization wrappers are used for collections that might be accessed by multiple threads. A wrapper object receives method calls, adds thread synchronization (to prevent concurrent access to the collection) and delegates the calls to the wrapped collection object. The Collections API provides a set of static methods for wrapping collections as synchronized versions. Method headers for the synchronization wrappers are listed in Fig. 19.22. Details about these methods are available at All these methods take a generic type and return a synchronized view of the generic type. For example, the following code creates a synchronized List (list2) that stores String objects:

 List< String > list1 = new ArrayList< String >();
 List< String > list2 = Collections.synchronizedList( list1 );

Figure 19.22. Synchronization wrapper methods.

public static method headers

< T > Collection< T > synchronizedCollection( Collection< T > c )

< T > List< T > synchronizedList( List< T > aList )

< T > Set< T > synchronizedSet( Set< T > s )

< T > SortedSet< T > synchronizedSortedSet( SortedSet< T > s )

< K, V > Map< K, V > synchronizedMap( Map< K, V > m )

< K, V > SortedMap< K, V > synchronizedSortedMap( SortedMap< K, V > m )

Introduction to Computers, the Internet and the World Wide Web

Introduction to Java Applications

Introduction to Classes and Objects

Control Statements: Part I

Control Statements: Part 2

Methods: A Deeper Look


Classes and Objects: A Deeper Look

Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance

Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism

GUI Components: Part 1

Graphics and Java 2D™

Exception Handling

Files and Streams


Searching and Sorting

Data Structures



Introduction to Java Applets

Multimedia: Applets and Applications

GUI Components: Part 2



Accessing Databases with JDBC


JavaServer Pages (JSP)

Formatted Output

Strings, Characters and Regular Expressions

Appendix A. Operator Precedence Chart

Appendix B. ASCII Character Set

Appendix C. Keywords and Reserved Words

Appendix D. Primitive Types

Appendix E. (On CD) Number Systems

Appendix F. (On CD) Unicode®

Appendix G. Using the Java API Documentation

Appendix H. (On CD) Creating Documentation with javadoc

Appendix I. (On CD) Bit Manipulation

Appendix J. (On CD) ATM Case Study Code

Appendix K. (On CD) Labeled break and continue Statements

Appendix L. (On CD) UML 2: Additional Diagram Types

Appendix M. (On CD) Design Patterns

Appendix N. Using the Debugger

Inside Back Cover

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Java(c) How to Program
Java How to Program (6th Edition) (How to Program (Deitel))
ISBN: 0131483986
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2003
Pages: 615
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