Class Character

Recall from Chapter 17 that Java provides eight type-wrapper classesBoolean, Character, Double, Float, Byte, Short, Integer and Longthat enable primitive-type values to be treated as objects. In this section, we present class Characterthe type-wrapper class for primitive type char.

Most Character methods are static methods designed to be convenience methods for processing individual char values. These methods take at least a character argument and perform either a test or a manipulation of the character. Class Character also contains a constructor that receives a char argument to initialize a Character object. Most of the methods of class Character are presented in the next three examples. For more information on class Character (and all the type-wrapper classes), see the java.lang package in the Java API documentation.

Figure 29.15 demonstrates some static methods that test characters to determine whether they are a specific character type and the static methods that perform case conversions on characters. You can enter any character and apply the methods to the character.

Figure 29.15. Character class static methods for testing characters and converting character case.

(This item is displayed on pages 1373 - 1374 in the print version)

 1 // Fig. 29.15: StaticCharMethods.java
 2 // Static Character testing methods and case conversion methods.
 3 import java.util.Scanner;
 4
 5 public class StaticCharMethods
 6 {
 7 public static void main( String args[] )
 8 {
 9 Scanner scanner = new Scanner( System.in ); // create scanner
10 System.out.println( "Enter a character and press Enter" );
11 String input = scanner.next();
12 char c = input.charAt( 0 ); // get input character
13
14 // display character info
15 System.out.printf( "is defined: %b
", Character.isDefined( c ) );
16 System.out.printf( "is digit: %b
", Character.isDigit( c ) );
17 System.out.printf( "is first character in a Java identifier: %b
",
18 Character.isJavaIdentifierStart( c ) );
19 System.out.printf( "is part of a Java identifier: %b
",
20 Character.isJavaIdentifierPart( c ) );
21 System.out.printf( "is letter: %b
", Character.isLetter( c ) );
22 System.out.printf(
23 "is letter or digit: %b
", Character.isLetterOrDigit( c ) );
24 System.out.printf(
25 "is lower case: %b
", Character.isLowerCase( c ) );
26 System.out.printf(
27 "is upper case: %b
", Character.isUpperCase( c ) );
28 System.out.printf(
29 "to upper case: %s
", Character.toUpperCase( c ) );
30 System.out.printf(
31 "to lower case: %s
", Character.toLowerCase( c ) );
32 } // end main
33 } // end class StaticCharMethods
 
Enter a character and press Enter
A
is defined: true
is digit: false
is first character in a Java identifier: true
is part of a Java identifier: true
is letter: true
is letter or digit: true
is lower case: false
is upper case: true
to upper case: A
to lower case: a
 
 
Enter a character and press Enter
8
is defined: true
is digit: true
is first character in a Java identifier: false
is part of a Java identifier: true
is letter: false
is letter or digit: true
is lower case: false
is upper case: false
to upper case: 8
to lower case: 8
 
 
Enter a character and press Enter
$
is defined: true
is digit: false
is first character in a Java identifier: true
is part of a Java identifier: true
is letter: false
is letter or digit: false
is lower case: false
is upper case: false
to upper case: $
to lower case: $
 

Line 15 uses Character method isDefined to determine whether character c is defined in the Unicode character set. If so, the method returns true, and otherwise, it returns false. Line 16 uses Character method isDigit to determine whether character c is a defined Unicode digit. If so, the method returns TRue, and otherwise, it returns false.

Line 18 uses Character method isJavaIdentifierStart to determine whether c is a character that can be the first character of an identifier in Javathat is, a letter, an underscore (_) or a dollar sign ($). If so, the method returns TRue, and otherwise, it returns false. Line 20 uses Character method isJavaIdentifierPart to determine whether character c is a character that can be used in an identifier in Javathat is, a digit, a letter, an underscore (_) or a dollar sign ($). If so, the method returns true, and otherwise, it returns false.

Line 21 uses Character method isLetter to determine whether character c is a letter. If so, the method returns true, and otherwise, it returns false. Line 23 uses Character method isLetterOrDigit to determine whether character c is a letter or a digit. If so, the method returns true, and otherwise, it returns false.

Line 25 uses Character method isLowerCase to determine whether character c is a lowercase letter. If so, the method returns true, and otherwise, it returns false. Line 27 uses Character method isUpperCase to determine whether character c is an uppercase letter. If so, the method returns true, and otherwise, it returns false.

Line 29 uses Character method toUpperCase to convert the character c to its uppercase equivalent. The method returns the converted character if the character has an uppercase equivalent, and otherwise, the method returns its original argument. Line 31 uses Character method toLowerCase to convert the character c to its lowercase equivalent. The method returns the converted character if the character has a lowercase equivalent, and otherwise, the method returns its original argument.

Figure 29.16 demonstrates static Character methods digit and forDigit, which convert characters to digits and digits to characters, respectively, in different number systems. Common number systems include decimal (base 10), octal (base 8), hexadecimal (base 16) and binary (base 2). The base of a number is also known as its radix. For more information on conversions between number systems, see Appendix E.

Figure 29.16. Character class static conversion methods.

(This item is displayed on pages 1375 - 1376 in the print version)

 1 // Fig. 29.16: StaticCharMethods2.java
 2 // Static Character conversion methods.
 3 import java.util.Scanner;
 4
 5 public class StaticCharMethods2
 6 {
 7 // create StaticCharMethods2 object execute application
 8 public static void main( String args[] )
 9 {
10 Scanner scanner = new Scanner( System.in );
11
12 // get radix
13 System.out.println( "Please enter a radix:" );
14 int radix = scanner.nextInt();
15
16 // get user choice
17 System.out.printf( "Please choose one:
1 -- %s
2 -- %s
",
18 "Convert digit to character", "Convert character to digit");
19 int choice = scanner.nextInt();
20
21 // process request
22 switch ( choice )
23 {
24 case 1 : // convert digit to character
25 System.out.println( "Enter a digit:" );
26 int digit = scanner.nextInt();
27 System.out.printf( "Convert digit to character: %s
",
28 Character.forDigit( digit, radix ));
29 break;
30
31 case 2 : // convert character to digit
32 System.out.println( "Enter a character:" );
33 char character = scanner.next().charAt( 0 );
34 System.out.printf( "Convert character to digit: %s
",
35 Character.digit( character, radix ));
36 break;
37 } // end switch
38 } // end main
39 } // end class StaticCharMethods2
 
Please enter a radix:
16
Please choose one:
1 -- Convert digit to character
2 -- Convert character to digit
2
Enter a character:
A
Convert character to digit: 10
 
 
Please enter a radix:
16
Please choose one:
1 -- Convert digit to character
2 -- Convert character to digit
1
Enter a digit:
13
Convert digit to character: d
 

Line 28 uses method forDigit to convert the integer digit into a character in the number system specified by the integer radix (the base of the number). For example, the decimal integer 13 in base 16 (the radix) has the character value 'd'. Note that lowercase letters represent the same value as uppercase letters in number systems. Line 35 uses method digit to convert the character c into an integer in the number system specified by the integer radix (the base of the number). For example, the character 'A' is the base 16 (the radix) representation of the base 10 value 10. The radix must be between 2 and 36, inclusive.

The application in Fig. 29.17 demonstrates the constructor and several non-static methods of class CharactercharValue, toString and equals. Lines 89 instantiate two Character objects and pass character literals to the constructor to initialize those objects. Line 12 uses Character method charValue to return the char value stored in Character object c1. Line 12 returns a string representation of Character object c2 using method toString. The condition in the if... else statement at lines 1417 uses method equals to determine whether the object c1 has the same contents as the object c2 (i.e., the characters inside each object are equal).

Figure 29.17. Character class non-static methods.

(This item is displayed on page 1377 in the print version)

 1 // Fig. 29.17: OtherCharMethods.java
 2 // Non-static Character methods.
 3
 4 public class OtherCharMethods
 5 {
 6 public static void main( String args[] )
 7 {
 8 Character c1 = 'A';
 9 Character c2 = 'a';
10
11 System.out.printf(
12 "c1 = %s
c2 = %s

", c1.charValue(), c2.toString() );
13
14 if ( c1.equals( c2 ) )
15 System.out.println( "c1 and c2 are equal
" );
16 else
17 System.out.println( "c1 and c2 are not equal
" );
18 } // end main
19 } // end class OtherCharMethods
 
c1 = A
c2 = a

c1 and c2 are not equal
 

Introduction to Computers, the Internet and the World Wide Web

Introduction to Java Applications

Introduction to Classes and Objects

Control Statements: Part I

Control Statements: Part 2

Methods: A Deeper Look

Arrays

Classes and Objects: A Deeper Look

Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance

Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism

GUI Components: Part 1

Graphics and Java 2D™

Exception Handling

Files and Streams

Recursion

Searching and Sorting

Data Structures

Generics

Collections

Introduction to Java Applets

Multimedia: Applets and Applications

GUI Components: Part 2

Multithreading

Networking

Accessing Databases with JDBC

Servlets

JavaServer Pages (JSP)

Formatted Output

Strings, Characters and Regular Expressions

Appendix A. Operator Precedence Chart

Appendix B. ASCII Character Set

Appendix C. Keywords and Reserved Words

Appendix D. Primitive Types

Appendix E. (On CD) Number Systems

Appendix F. (On CD) Unicode®

Appendix G. Using the Java API Documentation

Appendix H. (On CD) Creating Documentation with javadoc

Appendix I. (On CD) Bit Manipulation

Appendix J. (On CD) ATM Case Study Code

Appendix K. (On CD) Labeled break and continue Statements

Appendix L. (On CD) UML 2: Additional Diagram Types

Appendix M. (On CD) Design Patterns

Appendix N. Using the Debugger

Inside Back Cover



Java(c) How to Program
Java How to Program (6th Edition) (How to Program (Deitel))
ISBN: 0131483986
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2003
Pages: 615

Similar book on Amazon

Flylib.com © 2008-2017.
If you may any questions please contact us: flylib@qtcs.net