Fundamentals of Characters and Strings

Characters are the fundamental building blocks of Java source programs. Every program is composed of a sequence of characters thatwhen grouped together meaningfullyare interpreted by the computer as a series of instructions used to accomplish a task. A program may contain character literals. A character literal is an integer value represented as a character in single quotes. For example, 'z' represents the integer value of z, and ' ' represents the integer value of newline. The value of a character literal is the integer value of the character in the Unicode character set. Appendix B presents the integer equivalents of the characters in the ASCII character set, which is a subset of Unicode (discussed in Appendix F). For detailed information on Unicode, visit

Recall from Section 2.2 that a string is a sequence of characters treated as a single unit. A string may include letters, digits and various special characters, such as +, -, *, / and $. A string is an object of class String. String literals (stored in memory as String objects) are written as a sequence of characters in double quotation marks, as in:


"John Q. Doe"

(a name)


"9999 Main Street"

(a street address)


"Waltham, Massachusetts"

(a city and state)


"(201) 555-1212"

(a telephone number)

A string may be assigned to a String reference. The declaration

 String color = "blue";

initializes String reference color to refer to a String object that contains the string "blue".

Performance Tip 29.1

Java treats all string literals with the same contents as a single String object that has many references to it. This conserves memory.

Introduction to Computers, the Internet and the World Wide Web

Introduction to Java Applications

Introduction to Classes and Objects

Control Statements: Part I

Control Statements: Part 2

Methods: A Deeper Look


Classes and Objects: A Deeper Look

Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance

Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism

GUI Components: Part 1

Graphics and Java 2D™

Exception Handling

Files and Streams


Searching and Sorting

Data Structures



Introduction to Java Applets

Multimedia: Applets and Applications

GUI Components: Part 2



Accessing Databases with JDBC


JavaServer Pages (JSP)

Formatted Output

Strings, Characters and Regular Expressions

Appendix A. Operator Precedence Chart

Appendix B. ASCII Character Set

Appendix C. Keywords and Reserved Words

Appendix D. Primitive Types

Appendix E. (On CD) Number Systems

Appendix F. (On CD) Unicode®

Appendix G. Using the Java API Documentation

Appendix H. (On CD) Creating Documentation with javadoc

Appendix I. (On CD) Bit Manipulation

Appendix J. (On CD) ATM Case Study Code

Appendix K. (On CD) Labeled break and continue Statements

Appendix L. (On CD) UML 2: Additional Diagram Types

Appendix M. (On CD) Design Patterns

Appendix N. Using the Debugger

Inside Back Cover

Java(c) How to Program
Java How to Program (6th Edition) (How to Program (Deitel))
ISBN: 0131483986
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2003
Pages: 615 © 2008-2020.
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