(Optional) Software Engineering Case Study: Starting to Program the Classes of the ATM System

(Optional) Software Engineering Case Study Starting to Program the Classes of the ATM System

In the "Software Engineering Case Study" sections in Chapters 17, we introduced the fundamentals of object orientation and developed an object-oriented design for our ATM system. Earlier in this chapter, we discussed many of the details of programming with Java classes. We now begin implementing our object-oriented design in Java. At the end of this section, we show how to convert class diagrams to Java code. In the final "Software Engineering Case Study" section (Section 10.9), we modify the code to incorporate the object-oriented concept of inheritance. We present the full Java code implementation in Appendix J.

Visibility

We now apply access modifiers to the members of our classes. In Chapter 3, we introduced access modifiers public and private. Access modifiers determine the visibility or accessibility of an object's attributes and methods to other objects. Before we can begin implementing our design, we must consider which attributes and methods of our classes should be public and which should be private.

In Chapter 3, we observed that attributes normally should be private and that methods invoked by clients of a given class should be public. Methods that are called only by other methods of the class as "utility methods," however, normally should be private. The UML employs visibility markers for modeling the visibility of attributes and operations. Public visibility is indicated by placing a plus sign (+) before an operation or an attribute, whereas a minus sign () indicates private visibility. Figure 8.24 shows our updated class diagram with visibility markers included. [Note: We do not include any operation parameters in Fig. 8.24this is perfectly normal. Adding visibility markers does not affect the parameters already modeled in the class diagrams of Fig. 6.22Fig. 6.25.]

Figure 8.24. Class diagram with visibility markers.

(This item is displayed on page 402 in the print version)

 

Navigability

Before we begin implementing our design in Java, we introduce an additional UML notation. The class diagram in Fig. 8.25 further refines the relationships among classes in the ATM system by adding navigability arrows to the association lines. Navigability arrows (represented as arrows with stick arrowheads in the class diagram) indicate in which direction an association can be traversed. When implementing a system designed using the UML, programmers use navigability arrows to help determine which objects need references to other objects. For example, the navigability arrow pointing from class ATM to class BankDatabase indicates that we can navigate from the former to the latter, thereby enabling the ATM to invoke the BankDatabase's operations. However, since Fig. 8.25 does not contain a navigability arrow pointing from class BankDatabase to class ATM, the BankDatabase cannot access the ATM's operations. Note that associations in a class diagram that have navigability arrows at both ends or do not have navigability arrows at all indicate bidirectional navigabilitynavigation can proceed in either direction across the association.

Figure 8.25. Class diagram with navigability arrows.

(This item is displayed on page 403 in the print version)

Like the class diagram of Fig. 3.24, the class diagram of Fig. 8.25 omits classes BalanceInquiry and Deposit to keep the diagram simple. The navigability of the associations in which these classes participate closely parallels the navigability of class Withdrawal. Recall from Section 3.10 that BalanceInquiry has an association with class Screen. We can navigate from class BalanceInquiry to class Screen along this association, but we cannot navigate from class Screen to class BalanceInquiry. Thus, if we were to model class BalanceInquiry in Fig. 8.25, we would place a navigability arrow at class Screen's end of this association. Also recall that class Deposit associates with classes Screen, Keypad and DepositSlot. We can navigate from class Deposit to each of these classes, but not vice versa. We therefore would place navigability arrows at the Screen, Keypad and DepositSlot ends of these associations. [Note: We model these additional classes and associations in our final class diagram in Section 10.9, after we have simplified the structure of our system by incorporating the object-oriented concept of inheritance.]

Implementing the ATM System from Its UML Design

We are now ready to begin implementing the ATM system. We first convert the classes in the diagrams of Fig. 8.24 and Fig. 8.25 into Java code. The code will represent the "skeleton" of the system. In Chapter 10, we modify the code to incorporate the object-oriented concept of inheritance. In Appendix J, ATM Case Study Code, we present the complete working Java code for our model.

As an example, we develop the code from our design of class Withdrawal in Fig. 8.24. We use this figure to determine the attributes and operations of the class. We use the UML model in Fig. 8.25 to determine the associations among classes. We follow the following four guidelines for each class:

  1. Use the name located in the first compartment to declare the class as a public class with an empty no-argument constructor. We include this constructor simply as a placeholder to remind us that most classes will indeed need constructors. In Appendix J, when we complete a working version of this class, we add any necessary arguments and code the body of the constructor as needed. For example, class Withdrawal yields the code in Fig. 8.26. [Note: If we find that the class's instance variables require only default initialization, then we remove the empty no-argument constructor because it is unnecessary.]

    Figure 8.26. Java code for class Withdrawal based on Fig. 8.24 and Fig. 8.25.

     1 // Class Withdrawal represents an ATM withdrawal transaction
     2 public class Withdrawal
     3 {
     4 // no-argument constructor
     5 public Withdrawal()
     6 {
     7 } // end no-argument Withdrawal constructor
     8 } // end class Withdrawal
    
  2. Use the attributes located in the second compartment to declare the instance variables. For example, the private attributes accountNumber and amount of class Withdrawal yield the code in Fig. 8.27. [Note: The constructor of the complete working version of this class will assign values to these attributes.]

    Figure 8.27. Java code for class Withdrawal based on Fig. 8.24 and Fig. 8.25.

     1 // Class Withdrawal represents an ATM withdrawal transaction
     2 public class Withdrawal
     3 {
     4 // attributes
     5 private int accountNumber; // account to withdraw funds from
     6 private double amount; // amount to withdraw
     7
     8 // no-argument constructor
     9 public Withdrawal()
    10 {
    11 } // end no-argument Withdrawal constructor
    12 } // end class Withdrawal
    
  3. Use the associations described in the class diagram to declare the references to other objects. For example, according to Fig. 8.25, Withdrawal can access one object of class Screen, one object of class Keypad, one object of class CashDispenser and one object of class BankDatabase. This yields the code in Fig. 8.28. [Note: The constructor of the complete working version of this class will initialize these instance variables with references to actual objects.]

    Figure 8.28. Java code for class Withdrawal based on Fig. 8.24 and Fig. 8.25.

    (This item is displayed on page 405 in the print version)

     1 // Class Withdrawal represents an ATM withdrawal transaction
     2 public class Withdrawal
     3 {
     4 // attributes
     5 private int accountNumber; // account to withdraw funds from
     6 private double amount; // amount to withdraw
     7
     8 // references to associated objects
     9 private Screen screen; // ATM's screen
    10 private Keypad keypad; // ATM's keypad
    11 private CashDispenser cashDispenser; // ATM's cash dispenser
    12 private BankDatabase bankDatabase; // account info database
    13
    14 // no-argument constructor
    15 public Withdrawal()
    16 {
    17 } // end no-argument Withdrawal constructor
    18 } // end class Withdrawal
    
  4. Use the operations located in the third compartment of Fig. 8.24 to declare the shells of the methods. If we have not yet specified a return type for an operation, we declare the method with return type void. Refer to the class diagrams of Fig. 6.22Fig. 6.25 to declare any necessary parameters. For example, adding the public operation execute in class Withdrawal, which has an empty parameter list, yields the code in Fig. 8.29. [Note: We code the bodies of methods when we implement the complete system in Appendix J.]

    Figure 8.29. Java code for class Withdrawal based on Fig. 8.24 and Fig. 8.25.

    (This item is displayed on page 405 in the print version)

     1 // Class Withdrawal represents an ATM withdrawal transaction
     2 public class Withdrawal
     3 {
     4 // attributes
     5 private int accountNumber; // account to withdraw funds from
     6 private double amount; // amount to withdraw
     7
     8 // references to associated objects
     9 private Screen screen; // ATM's screen
    10 private Keypad keypad; // ATM's keypad
    11 private CashDispenser cashDispenser; // ATM's cash dispenser
    12 private BankDatabase bankDatabase; // account info database
    13
    14 // no-argument constructor
    15 public Withdrawal()
    16 {
    17 } // end no-argument Withdrawal constructor
    18
    19 // operations
    20 public void execute()
    21 {
    22 } // end method execute
    23 } // end class Withdrawal
    

This concludes our discussion of the basics of generating classes from UML diagrams.

Software Engineering Case Study Self-Review Exercises

8.1

State whether the following statement is true or false, and if false, explain why: If an attribute of a class is marked with a minus sign (-) in a class diagram, the attribute is not directly accessible outside of the class.

 
8.2

In Fig. 8.25, the association between the ATM and the Screen indicates that:

  1. we can navigate from the Screen to the ATM
  2. we can navigate from the ATM to the Screen
  3. Both a and b; the association is bidirectional
  4. None of the above
8.3

Write Java code to begin implementing the design for class Keypad.

Answers to Software Engineering Case Study Self-Review Exercises

8.1

True. The minus sign () indicates private visibility.

8.2

b.

8.3

The design for class Keypad yields the code in Fig. 8.30. Recall that class Keypad has no attributes for the moment, but attributes may become apparent as we continue the implementation. Also note that if we were designing a real ATM, method getInput would need to interact with the ATM's keypad hardware. We will actually do input from the keyboard of a personal computer when we write the complete Java code in Appendix J.

Figure 8.30. Java code for class Keypad based on Fig. 8.24 and Fig. 8.25.

 1 // Class Keypad represents an ATM's keypad
 2 public class Keypad
 3 {
 4 // no attributes have been specified yet
 5
 6 // no-argument constructor
 7 public Keypad()
 8 {
 9 } // end no-argument Keypad constructor
10
11 // operations
12 public int getInput()
13 {
14 } // end method getInput
15 } // end class Keypad

Introduction to Computers, the Internet and the World Wide Web

Introduction to Java Applications

Introduction to Classes and Objects

Control Statements: Part I

Control Statements: Part 2

Methods: A Deeper Look

Arrays

Classes and Objects: A Deeper Look

Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance

Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism

GUI Components: Part 1

Graphics and Java 2D™

Exception Handling

Files and Streams

Recursion

Searching and Sorting

Data Structures

Generics

Collections

Introduction to Java Applets

Multimedia: Applets and Applications

GUI Components: Part 2

Multithreading

Networking

Accessing Databases with JDBC

Servlets

JavaServer Pages (JSP)

Formatted Output

Strings, Characters and Regular Expressions

Appendix A. Operator Precedence Chart

Appendix B. ASCII Character Set

Appendix C. Keywords and Reserved Words

Appendix D. Primitive Types

Appendix E. (On CD) Number Systems

Appendix F. (On CD) Unicode®

Appendix G. Using the Java API Documentation

Appendix H. (On CD) Creating Documentation with javadoc

Appendix I. (On CD) Bit Manipulation

Appendix J. (On CD) ATM Case Study Code

Appendix K. (On CD) Labeled break and continue Statements

Appendix L. (On CD) UML 2: Additional Diagram Types

Appendix M. (On CD) Design Patterns

Appendix N. Using the Debugger

Inside Back Cover



Java(c) How to Program
Java How to Program (6th Edition) (How to Program (Deitel))
ISBN: 0131483986
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2003
Pages: 615

Similar book on Amazon

Flylib.com © 2008-2017.
If you may any questions please contact us: flylib@qtcs.net