Sorting Algorithms

Sorting data (i.e., placing the data into some particular order, such as ascending or descending) is one of the most important computing applications. A bank sorts all checks by account number so that it can prepare individual bank statements at the end of each month. Telephone companies sort their lists of accounts by last name and, further, by first name to make it easy to find phone numbers. Virtually every organization must sort some data, and often, massive amounts of it. Sorting data is an intriguing, computer-intensive problem that has attracted intense research efforts.

An important item to understand about sorting is that the end resultthe sorted arraywill be the same no matter which algorithm you use to sort the array. The choice of algorithm affects only the run time and memory use of the program. The rest of the chapter introduces three common sorting algorithms. The first twoselection sort and insertion sortare simple algorithms to program, but are inefficient. The last algorithmmerge sortis a much faster algorithm than selection sort and insertion sort, but is harder to program. We focus on sorting arrays of primitive type data, namely ints. It is possible to sort arrays of objects of classes as well. We discuss this in Section 19.6.1.

16.3.1. Selection Sort

Selection sort is a simple, but inefficient, sorting algorithm. The first iteration of the algorithm selects the smallest element in the array and swaps it with the first element. The second iteration selects the second-smallest item (which is the smallest item of the remaining elements) and swaps it with the second element. The algorithm continues until the last iteration selects the second-largest element and swaps it with the second-to-last index, leaving the largest element in the last index. After the ith iteration, the smallest i items of the array will be sorted into increasing order in the first i elements of the array.

As an example, consider the array

 34 56 4 10 77 51 93 30 5 52

A program that implements selection sort first determines the smallest element (4) of this array which is contained in index 2. The program swaps 4 with 34, resulting in

 4 56 34 10 77 51 93 30 5 52

The program then determines the smallest value of the remaining elements (all elements except 4), which is 5, contained in index 8. The program swaps 5 with 56, resulting in

 4 5 34 10 77 51 93 30 56 52

On the third iteration, the program determines the next smallest value (10) and swaps it with 34.

 4 5 10 34 77 51 93 30 56 52

The process continues until the array is fully sorted.

 4 5 10 30 34 51 52 56 77 93

Note that after the first iteration, the smallest element is in the first position. After the second iteration, the two smallest elements are in order in the first two positions. After the third iteration, the three smallest elements are in order in the first three positions.

Figure 16.6 declares the SelectionSort class. This class has two private instance variablesan array of int s named data, and a static Random object to generate random integers to fill the array. When an object of class SelectionSort is instantiated, the constructor (lines 1219) creates and initializes the array data with random ints in the range 1099.

Figure 16.6. SelectionSort class.

(This item is displayed on pages 798 - 799 in the print version)

 1 // Fig 16.6: SelectionSort.java
 2 // Class that creates an array filled with random integers.
 3 // Provides a method to sort the array with selection sort.
 4 import java.util.Random;
 5
 6 public class SelectionSort
 7 {
 8 private int [] data; // array of values
 9 private static Random generator = new Random();
10
11 // create array of given size and fill with random integers
12 public SelectionSort( int size )
13 {
14 data = new int [ size ]; // create space for array
15
16 // fill array with random ints in range 10-99
17 for ( int i = 0; i < size; i++ )
18 data[ i ] = 10 + generator.nextInt( 90 );
19 } // end SelectionSort constructor
20
21 // sort array using selection sort
22 public void sort() 
23 {
24 int smallest; // index of smallest element
25
26 // loop over data.length - 1 elements 
27 for ( int i = 0 ; i < data.length - 1 ; i++ )
28 {
29 smallest = i; // first index of remaining array
30
31 // loop to find index of smallest element 
32 for ( int index = i + 1 ; index < data.length; index++ )
33  if ( data[ index ] < data[ smallest ] ) 
34  smallest = index; 
35
36  swap( i, smallest ); // swap smallest element into position
37  printPass( i + 1, smallest ); // output pass of algorithm 
38  } // end outer for 
39 } // end method sort 
40
41 // helper method to swap values in two elements
42 public void swap( int first, int second )
43 {
44 int temporary = data[ first ]; // store first in temporary
45 data[ first ] = data[ second ]; // replace first with second
46 data[ second ] = temporary; // put temporary in second
47 } // end method swap
48
49 // print a pass of the algorithm
50 public void printPass( int pass, int index )
51 {
52 System.out.print( String.format( "after pass %2d: ", pass ) );
53
54 // output elements till selected item
55 for ( int i = 0 ; i < index; i++ )
56 System.out.print( data[ i ] + " " );
57
58 System.out.print( data[ index ] + "* " ); // indicate swap
59
60 // finish outputting array
61 for ( int i = index + 1; i < data.length; i++ )
62 System.out.print( data[ i ] + " " );
63
64 System.out.print( "
 " ); // for alignment
65
66 // indicate amount of array that is sorted
67 for ( int j = 0 ; j < pass; j++ )
68 System.out.print( "-- " );
69 System.out.println( "
" ); // add endline
70 } // end method indicateSelection
71
72 // method to output values in array
73 public String toString()
74 {
75 StringBuffer temporary = new StringBuffer();
76
77 // iterate through array
78 for ( int element : data )
79 temporary.append( element + " " );
80
81 temporary.append( "
" ); // add endline character
82 return temporary.toString();
83 } // end method toString
84 } // end class SelectionSort

Lines 2239 declare the sort method. Line 24 declares the variable smallest, which will store the index of the smallest element in the remaining array. Lines 2738 loop data.length - 1 times. Line 29 initializes the index of the smallest element to the current item. Lines 3234 loop over the remaining elements in the array. For each of these elements, line 33 compares its value to the value of the smallest element. If the current element is smaller than the smallest element, line 34 assigns the current element's index to smallest. When this loop finishes, smallest will contain the index of the smallest element in the remaining array. Line 36 calls method swap (lines 4247) to place the smallest remaining element in the next spot in the array.

Line 9 of Fig. 16.7 creates a SelectionSort object with 10 elements. Line 12 implicitly call method toString to output the unsorted object. Line 14 calls method sort (lines 2239 of Fig. 16.6), which sorts the elements using selection sort. Then lines 1617 output the sorted object. The output of this program uses dashes to indicate the portion of the array that is sorted after each pass. An asterisk is placed next to the position of the element that was swapped with the smallest element on that pass. On each pass, the element next to the asterisk and the element above the rightmost set of dashes were the two values that were swapped.

Figure 16.7. SelectionSortTest class.

(This item is displayed on pages 799 - 800 in the print version)

 1 // Fig 16.7: SelectionSortTest.java
 2 // Test the selection sort class.
 3
 4 public class SelectionSortTest
 5 {
 6 public static void main( String[] args )
 7 {
 8 // create object to perform selection sort
 9 SelectionSort sortArray = new SelectionSort( 10 );
10
11 System.out.println( "Unsorted array:" );
12 System.out.println( sortArray ); // print unsorted array
13
14 sortArray.sort(); // sort array
15
16 System.out.println( "Sorted array:" );
17 System.out.println( sortArray ); // print sorted array
18 } // end main
19 } // end class SelectionSortTest
 
Unsorted array:
61 87 80 58 40 50 20 13 71 45

after pass 1: 13 87 80 58 40 50 20 61* 71 45
 --

after pass 2: 13 20 80 58 40 50 87* 61 71 45
 -- --

after pass 3: 13 20 40 58 80* 50 87 61 71 45
 -- -- --

after pass 4: 13 20 40 45 80 50 87 61 71 58*
 -- -- -- --

after pass 5: 13 20 40 45 50 80* 87 61 71 58
 -- -- -- -- --

after pass 6: 13 20 40 45 50 58 87 61 71 80*
 -- -- -- -- -- --

after pass 7: 13 20 40 45 50 58 61 87* 71 80
 -- -- -- -- -- -- --

after pass 8: 13 20 40 45 50 58 61 71 87* 80
 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

after pass 9: 13 20 40 45 50 58 61 71 80 87*
 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Sorted array:
13 20 40 45 50 58 61 71 80 87
 

Efficiency of Selection Sort

The selection sort algorithm runs in O(n2 ) time. The sort method in lines 2239 of Fig. 16.6, which implements the selection sort algorithm, contains two for loops. The outer for loop (lines 2738) iterates over the first n 1 elements in the array, swapping the smallest remaining item into its sorted position. The inner for loop (lines 3234) iterates over each item in the remaining array, searching for the smallest element. This loop executes n 1 times during the first iteration of the outer loop, n 2 times during the second iteration, then n 3, ..., 3, 2, 1. This inner loop will iterate a total of n(n 1)/2 or (n2 n)/2. In Big O notation, smaller terms drop out and constants are ignored, leaving a final Big O of O(n2).

16.3.2. Insertion Sort

Insertion sort is another simple, but inefficient, sorting algorithm. The first iteration of this algorithm takes the second element in the array and, if it is less than the first element, swaps it with the first element. The second iteration looks at the third element and inserts it into the correct position with respect to the first two elements, so all three elements are in order. At the ith iteration of this algorithm, the first i elements in the original array will be sorted.

Consider as an example the following array [Note: This array is identical to the array used in the discussions of selection sort and merge sort.]

 34 56 4 10 77 51 93 30 5 52

A program that implements the insertion sort algorithm will first look at the first two elements of the array, 34 and 56. These two elements are already in order, so the program continues (if they were out of order, the program would swap them).

In the next iteration, the program looks at the third value, 4. This value is less than 56, so the program stores 4 in a temporary variable and moves 56 one element to the right. The program then checks and determines that 4 is less than 34, so it moves 34 one element to the right. The program has now reached the beginning of the array, so it places 4 in the zeroth element. The array now is

 4 34 56 10 77 51 93 30 5 52

In the next iteration, the program stores the value 10 in a temporary variable. Then the program compares 10 to 56 and moves 56 one element to the right because it is larger than 10. The program then compares 10 to 34, moving 34 right one element. When the program compares 10 to 4, it observes that 10 is larger than 4 and places 10 in element 1. The array now is

 4 10 34 56 77 51 93 30 5 52

Using this algorithm, at the ith iteration, the first i elements of the original array are sorted. They may not be in their final locations, however, because smaller values may be located later in the array.

Figure 16.8 declares the InsertionSort class. Lines 2246 declare the sort method. Line 24 declares the variable insert, which holds the element you are going to insert while you move the other elements. Lines 2745 loop over data.length - 1 items in the array. In each iteration, line 30 stores in insert the value of the element that will be inserted into the sorted portion of the array. Line 33 declares and initializes the variable moveItem, which keeps track of where to insert the element. Lines 3641 loop to locate the correct position where the element should be inserted. The loop will terminate either when the program reaches the front of the array or when it reaches an element that is less than the value to be inserted. Line 39 moves an element to the right, and line 40 decrements the position at which to insert the next element. After the loop ends, line 43 inserts the element into place. Figure 16.9 is the same as Fig. 16.7 except that it creates and uses an InsertionSort object. The output of this program uses dashes to indicate the portion of the array that is sorted after each pass. An asterisk is placed next to the element that was inserted into place on that pass.

Figure 16.8. InsertionSort class.

(This item is displayed on pages 801 - 803 in the print version)

 1 // Fig 16.8: InsertionSort.java
 2 // Class that creates an array filled with random integers.
 3 // Provides a method to sort the array with insertion sort.
 4 import java.util.Random;
 5
 6 public class InsertionSort
 7 {
 8 private int[] data; // array of values
 9 private static Random generator = new Random();
10
11 // create array of given size and fill with random integers
12 public InsertionSort( int size )
13 {
14 data = new int [ size ]; // create space for array
15
16 // fill array with random ints in range 10-99
17 for ( int i = 0; i < size; i++ )
18 data[ i ] = 10 + generator.nextInt( 90 );
19 } // end InsertionSort constructor
20
21 // sort array using insertion sort
22 public void sort() 
23 {
24 int insert; // temporary variable to hold element to insert
25
26 // loop over data.length - 1 elements 
27 for ( int next = 1; next < data.length; next++ )
28 {
29 // store value in current element
30 insert = data[ next ]; 
31
32 // initialize location to place element
33 int moveItem = next; 
34
35 // search for place to put current element 
36 while ( moveItem > 0 && data[ moveItem - 1 ] > insert )
37 {
38  // shift element right one slot 
39  data[ moveItem ] = data[ moveItem - 1 ];
40  moveItem--; 
41 } // end while 
42
43  data[ moveItem ] = insert; // place inserted element 
44  printPass( next, moveItem ); // output pass of algorithm
45  } // end for 
46 } // end method sort 
47
48 // print a pass of the algorithm
49 public void printPass( int pass, int index )
50 {
51 System.out.print( String.format( "after pass %2d: ", pass ) );
52
53 // output elements till swapped item
54 for ( int i = 0 ; i < index; i++ )
55 System.out.print( data[ i ] + " " );
56
57 System.out.print( data[ index ] + "* " ); // indicate swap
58
59 // finish outputting array
60 for ( int i = index + 1; i < data.length; i++ )
61 System.out.print( data[ i ] + " " );
62
63 System.out.print( "
 " ); // for alignment
64
65 // indicate amount of array that is sorted
66 for( int i = 0; i <= pass; i++ )
67 System.out.print( "-- " );
68 System.out.println( "
" ); // add endline
69 } // end method printPass
70
71 // method to output values in array
72 public String toString()
73 {
74 StringBuffer temporary = new StringBuffer();
75
76 // iterate through array
77 for ( int element : data )
78 temporary.append( element + " " );
79
80 temporary.append( "
" ); // add endline character
81 return temporary.toString();
82 } // end method toString
83 } // end class InsertionSort

Figure 16.9. InsertionSortTest class.

(This item is displayed on pages 803 - 804 in the print version)

 1 // Fig 16.9: InsertionSortTest.java
 2 // Test the insertion sort class.
 3
 4 public class InsertionSortTest
 5 {
 6 public static void main( String[] args )
 7 {
 8 // create object to perform selection sort
 9 InsertionSort sortArray = new InsertionSort( 10 );
10
11 System.out.println( "Unsorted array:" );
12 System.out.println( sortArray ); // print unsorted array
13
14 sortArray.sort(); // sort array
15
16 System.out.println( "Sorted array:" );
17 System.out.println( sortArray ); // print sorted array
18 } // end main
19 } // end class InsertionSortTest
 
Unsorted array:
40 17 45 82 62 32 30 44 93 10

after pass 1: 17* 40 45 82 62 32 30 44 93 10
 -- --

after pass 2: 17 40 45* 82 62 32 30 44 93 10
 -- -- --

after pass 3: 17 40 45 82* 62 32 30 44 93 10
 -- -- -- --

after pass 4: 17 40 45 62* 82 32 30 44 93 10
 -- -- -- -- --

after pass 5: 17 32* 40 45 62 82 30 44 93 10
 -- -- -- -- -- --

after pass 6: 17 30* 32 40 45 62 82 44 93 10
 -- -- -- -- -- -- --

after pass 7: 17 30 32 40 44* 45 62 82 93 10
 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

after pass 8: 17 30 32 40 44 45 62 82 93* 10
 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

after pass 9: 10* 17 30 32 40 44 45 62 82 93
 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Sorted array:
10 17 30 32 40 44 45 62 82 93
 

Efficiency of Insertion Sort

The insertion sort algorithm also runs in O(n2) time. Like selection sort, the implementation of insertion sort (lines 2246 of Fig. 16.8) contains two loops. The for loop (lines 2745) iterates data.length - 1 times, inserting an element into the appropriate position in the elements sorted so far. For the purposes of this application, data.length - 1 is equivalent to n 1 (as data.length is the size of the array). The while loop (lines 3641) iterates over the preceding elements in the array. In the worst case, this while loop will require n 1 comparisons. Each individual loop runs in O(n) time. In Big O notation, nested loops mean that you must multiply the number of comparisons. For each iteration of an outer loop, there will be a certain number of iterations of the inner loop. In this algorithm, for each O(n) iterations of the outer loop, there will be O(n) iterations of the inner loop. Multiplying these values results in a Big O of O(n2).

16.3.3. Merge Sort

Merge sort is an efficient sorting algorithm, but is conceptually more complex than selection sort and insertion sort. The merge sort algorithm sorts an array by splitting it into two equal-sized subarrays, sorting each subarray and then merging them into one larger array. With an odd number of elements, the algorithm creates the two subarrays such that one has one more element than the other.

The implementation of merge sort in this example is recursive. The base case is an array with one element. A one-element array is, of course, sorted, so merge sort immediately returns when it is called with a one-element array. The recursion step splits an array into two approximately equal pieces, recursively sorts them and then merges the two sorted arrays into one larger, sorted array.

Suppose the algorithm has already merged smaller arrays to create sorted arrays A:

 4 10 34 56 77

and B:

 5 30 51 52 93

Merge sort combines these two arrays into one larger, sorted array. The smallest element in A is 4 (located in the zeroth index of A). The smallest element in B is 5 (located in the zeroth index of B). In order to determine the smallest element in the larger array, the algorithm compares 4 and 5. The value from A is smaller, so 4 becomes the first element in the merged array. The algorithm continues by comparing 10 (the second element in A) to 5 (the first element in B). The value from B is smaller, so 5 becomes the second element in the larger array. The algorithm continues by comparing 10 to 30, with 10 becoming the third element in the array, and so on.

Lines 2225 of Fig. 16.10 declare the sort method. Line 24 calls method sortArray with 0 and data.length - 1 as the arguments. The arguments correspond to the beginning and ending indices of the array to be sorted. These values tell method sortArray to operate on the entire array.

Figure 16.10. MergeSort class.

(This item is displayed on pages 805 - 807 in the print version)

 1 // Figure 16.10: MergeSort.java
 2 // Class that creates an array filled with random integers.
 3 // Provides a method to sort the array with merge sort.
 4 import java.util.Random;
 5
 6 public class MergeSort
 7 {
 8 private int [] data; // array of values
 9 private static Random generator = new Random();
10
11 // create array of given size and fill with random integers
12 public MergeSort( int size )
13 {
14 data = new int [ size ]; // create space for array
15
16 // fill array with random ints in range 10-99
17 for ( int i = 0 ; i < size; i++ )
18 data[ i ] = 10 + generator.nextInt( 90 );
19 } // end MergeSort constructor
20
21 // calls recursive split method to begin merge sorting
22 public void sort() 
23 {
24 sortArray( 0, data.length - 1 ); // split entire array
25 } // end method sort 
26 
27 // splits array, sorts subarrays and merges subarrays into sorted array
28 private void sortArray( int low, int high ) 
29 {
30 // test base case; size of array equals 1 
31 if ( ( high - low ) >= 1 ) // if not base case
32 {
33 int middle1 = ( low + high ) / 2; // calculate middle of array
34 int middle2 = middle1 + 1; // calculate next element over 
35 
36 // output split step
37 System.out.println( "split: " + subarray( low, high ) );
38 System.out.println( " " + subarray( low, middle1 );
39 System.out.println( " " + subarray( middle2, high ) );
40 System.out.println();
41 
42 // split array in half; sort each half (recursive calls)
43 sortArray( low, middle1 ); // first half of array 
44 sortArray( middle2, high ); // second half of array 
45 
46  // merge two sorted arrays after split calls return
47  merge ( low, middle1, middle2, high ); 
48  } // end if 
49 } // end method split 
50 
51 // merge two sorted subarrays into one sorted subarray 
52 private void merge( int left, int middle1, int middle2, int right )
53 {
54 int leftIndex = left; // index into left subarray 
55 int rightIndex = middle2; // index into right subarray 
56 int combinedIndex = left; // index into temporary working array
57 int [] combined = new int [ data.length ]; // working array 
58 
59 // output two subarrays before merging
60 System.out.println( "merge: " + subarray( left, middle1 ) );
61 System.out.println( " " + subarray( middle2, right ) );
62 
63 // merge arrays until reaching end of either 
64 while ( leftIndex <= middle1 && rightIndex <= right )
65 {
66  // place smaller of two current elements into result 
67  // and move to next space in arrays 
68  if ( data[ leftIndex ] <= data[ rightIndex ] ) 
69  combined[ combinedIndex++ ] = data[ leftIndex++ ]; 
70  else 
71  combined[ combinedIndex++ ] = data[ rightIndex++ ];
72 } // end while 
73 
74 // if left array is empty 
75 if ( leftIndex == middle2 ) 
76  // copy in rest of right array 
77  while ( rightIndex <= right ) 
78  combined[ combinedIndex++ ] = data[ rightIndex++ ];
79 else // right array is empty 
80  // copy in rest of left array 
81  while ( leftIndex <= middle1 ) 
82  combined[ combinedIndex++ ] = data[ leftIndex++ ]; 
83 
84 // copy values back into original array
85 for ( int i = left; i <= right; i++ ) 
86  data[ i ] = combined[ i ]; 
87 
88 // output merged array
89 System.out.println( " " + subarray( left, right ) );
90 System.out.println();
91 } // end method merge
92 
93 // method to output certain values in array
94 public String subarray( int low, int high )
95 {
96 StringBuffer temporary = new StringBuffer();
97 
98 // output spaces for alignment
99 for ( int i = 0; i < low; i++ )
100 temporary.append( " " );
101 
102 // output elements left in array
103 for ( int i = low; i <= high; i++ )
104 temporary.append( " " + data[ i ] );
105 
106 return temporary.toString();
107 } // end method subarray
108 
109 // method to output values in array
110 public String toString()
111 {
112 return subarray( 0, data.length - 1 );
113 } // end method toString
114 } // end class MergeSort

Method sortArray is declared in lines 2849. Line 31 tests the base case. If the size of the array is 1, the array is already sorted, so the method simply returns immediately. If the size of the array is greater than 1, the method splits the array in two, recursively calls method sortArray to sort the two subarrays, then merges them. Line 43 recursively calls method sortArray on the first half of the array, and line 44 recursively calls method sortArray on the second half of the array. When these two method calls return, each half of the array has been sorted. Line 47 calls method merge (lines 5291) on the two halves of the array to combine the two sorted arrays into one larger sorted array.

Lines 6472 in method merge loop until the program reaches the end of either subarray. Line 68 tests which element at the beginning of the arrays is smaller. If the element in the left array is smaller, line 69 places it in position in the combined array. If the element in the right array is smaller, line 71 places it in position in the combined array. When the while loop has completed (line 72), one entire subarray is placed in the combined array, but the other subarray still contains data. Line 75 tests whether the left array has reached the end. If so, lines 7778 fill the combined array with the elements of the right array. If the left array has not reached the end, then the right array must have reached the end, and lines 8182 fill the combined array with the elements of the left array. Finally, lines 8586 copy the combined array into the original array. Figure 16.11 creates and uses a Merge-Sort object. The output from this program displays the splits and merges performed by merge sort, showing the progress of the sort at each step of the algorithm.

Figure 16.11. MergeSortTest class.

(This item is displayed on pages 808 - 809 in the print version)

 1 // Figure 16.11: MergeSortTest.java
 2 // Test the merge sort class.
 3
 4 public class MergeSortTest
 5 {
 6 public static void main( String[] args )
 7 {
 8 // create object to perform merge sort
 9 MergeSort sortArray = new MergeSort( 10 );
10
11 // print unsorted array
12 System.out.println( "Unsorted:" + sortArray + "
" );
13
14 sortArray.sort(); // sort array
15
16 // print sorted array
17 System.out.println( "Sorted: " + sortArray );
18 } // end main
19 } // end class MergeSortTest
 
Unsorted: 75 56 85 90 49 26 12 48 40 47

split: 75 56 85 90 49 26 12 48 40 47
 75 56 85 90 49
 26 12 48 40 47

split: 75 56 85 90 49
 75 56 85
 90 49

split: 75 56 85
 75 56
 85

split: 75 56
 75
 56
merge: 75
 56
 56 75

merge: 56 75
 85
 56 75 85

split: 90 49
 90
 49

merge: 90
 49
 49 90

merge: 56 75 85
 49 90
 49 56 75 85 90

split: 26 12 48 40 47
 26 12 48
 40 47

split: 26 12 48
 26 12
 48

split: 26 12
 26
 12

merge: 26
 12
 12 26

merge: 12 26
 48
 12 26 48

split: 40 47
 40
 47

merge: 40
 47
 40 47

merge: 12 26 48
 40 47
 12 26 40 47 48

merge: 49 56 75 85 90

 12 26 40 47 48 49 56 75 85 90

Sorted: 12 26 40 47 48 49 56 75 85 90
 

Efficiency of Merge Sort

Merge sort is a far more efficient algorithm than either insertion sort or selection sort. Consider the first (nonrecursive) call to method sortArray. This results in two recursive calls to method sortArray with subarrays each approximately half the size of the original array, and a single call to method merge. This call to method merge requires, at worst, n 1 comparisons to fill the original array, which is O(n). (Recall that each element in the array can be chosen by comparing one element from each of the subarrays.) The two calls to method sortArray result in four more recursive calls to method sortArray, each with a subarray approximately a quarter the size of the original array along with two calls to method merge. These two calls to method merge each require, at worst, n/2 1 comparisons for a total number of comparisons of O(n). This process continues, each call to sortArray generating two additional calls to sortArray and a call to merge, until the algorithm has split the array into one-element subarrays. At each level, O(n) comparisons are required to merge the subarrays. Each level splits the size of the arrays in half, so doubling the size of the array requires one more level. Quadrupling the size of the array requires two more levels. This pattern is logarithmic and results in log2n levels. This results in a total efficiency of O(n log n). Figure 16.12 summarizes many of the searching and sorting algorithms covered in this book and lists the Big O for each of them. Figure 16.13 lists the Big O values we have covered in this chapter along with a number of values for n to highlight the differences in the growth rates.

Figure 16.12. Searching and sorting algorithms with Big O values.

Algorithm

Location

Big O

Searching Algorithms:

   

Linear Search

Section 16.2.1

O(n)

Binary Search

Section 16.2.2

O(log n)

Recursive Linear Search

Exercise 16.8

O(n)

Recursive Binary Search

Exercise 16.9

O(log n)

Sorting Algorithms:

   

Selection Sort

Section 16.3.1

O(n2)

Insertion Sort

Section 16.3.2

O(n2)

Merge Sort

Section 16.3.3

O(n log n)

Bubble Sort

Exercises 16.3 and 16.4

O(n2)

Figure 16.13. Number of comparisons for common Big O notations.

(This item is displayed on page 811 in the print version)

n =

O(log n)

O(n)

O(n log n)

O(n2)

1

0

1

0

1

2

1

2

2

4

3

1

3

3

9

4

1

4

4

16

5

1

5

5

25

10

1

10

10

100

100

2

100

200

10000

1,000

3

1000

3000

106

1,000,000

6

1000000

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Introduction to Computers, the Internet and the World Wide Web

Introduction to Java Applications

Introduction to Classes and Objects

Control Statements: Part I

Control Statements: Part 2

Methods: A Deeper Look

Arrays

Classes and Objects: A Deeper Look

Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance

Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism

GUI Components: Part 1

Graphics and Java 2D™

Exception Handling

Files and Streams

Recursion

Searching and Sorting

Data Structures

Generics

Collections

Introduction to Java Applets

Multimedia: Applets and Applications

GUI Components: Part 2

Multithreading

Networking

Accessing Databases with JDBC

Servlets

JavaServer Pages (JSP)

Formatted Output

Strings, Characters and Regular Expressions

Appendix A. Operator Precedence Chart

Appendix B. ASCII Character Set

Appendix C. Keywords and Reserved Words

Appendix D. Primitive Types

Appendix E. (On CD) Number Systems

Appendix F. (On CD) Unicode®

Appendix G. Using the Java API Documentation

Appendix H. (On CD) Creating Documentation with javadoc

Appendix I. (On CD) Bit Manipulation

Appendix J. (On CD) ATM Case Study Code

Appendix K. (On CD) Labeled break and continue Statements

Appendix L. (On CD) UML 2: Additional Diagram Types

Appendix M. (On CD) Design Patterns

Appendix N. Using the Debugger

Inside Back Cover

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Java(c) How to Program
Java How to Program (6th Edition) (How to Program (Deitel))
ISBN: 0131483986
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2003
Pages: 615
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