There are various reasons to manipulate the digits dialed by the caller on a voice system. The most common reason is to allow both internal calls (from other extensions) and external calls from the PSTN (where a full E.164 phone number is delivered) to terminate directly on the user's phone without needing a receptionist to intercept and redirect the call.
E.164 is an International Telecommunication Union (ITU) specification that describes international telephone dial plans. It specifies phone number attributes such as international dialing codes, regional (area) codes, and the minimum and maximum length of each field in the phone number. Voice systems use the E.164 specification to parse and interpret phone numbers. PSTN numbers are always fully qualified E.164 numbers, whereas extensions within your business typically aren't, because they are private numbers of local significance only.
Here are some other reasons to translate (or manipulate) digits:
For example, suppose your employee, Grace, is at extension 3001, and her PSTN DID number is 444-555-3001. Without some form of digit manipulation or live intercept, a call incoming from the PSTN that dialed 444-555-3001 will not match the ephone-dn definition for Grace's phone, which contains only her extension, 3001. Therefore, a method is needed to translate the string 4445553001 to 3001.
Several Cisco IOS digit manipulation tools can translate phone numbers. The following are the most common:
Dial Peer Commands
You can include several commands on a POTS dial peer to add, suppress, or substitute the digits forwarded to the PSTN trunk interface:
Dial peer commands are handy if only small changes to the beginning or end of the dialed number are necessary, such as prefixing an area code, prefixing a CO designator (NXX) to an extension number, or forwarding only the last four digits of a longer number. The wildcard matching within the destination-pattern command automatically deletes the numbers explicitly matched. For example, when 5553001 is dialed and is matched by a dial peer that contains the command destination-pattern 555...., the default operation is to forward only the digits 3001.
Cisco IOS Translation Rules
For more extensive digit manipulation, such as a wholesale change of a number or substituting digits in the middle of a number, translation rules are much more powerful. Translation rules are regular expressions attached to the dial peer with the translation-profile command.
Like the other dial peer commands discussed in the preceding section, translation rules are a generic Cisco IOS feature that allows manipulation of called numbers, calling numbers, and number types. It can also be attached in such a way that it translates calls in only one direction, either incoming or outgoing.
Example 6-9 gives a configuration extract for a T1 PRI trunk, with translation profile to_261x attached for incoming calls (calls from the PSTN to the Cisco IOS PSTN gateway). Translation profile to_261x, in turn, references translation rule 23, which has ten rules specified. This CLI segment intercepts all calls incoming from the PSTN over this T1 PRI that contains a dialed number ending in the range 12610 to 12619. It does not matter what (or how many) numbers precede this range; for example, it could be 555-331-2610 or 551-2618. The numbers that match the rule (12610 to 12619) are translated pointblank to a completely unrelated number so that none of the original digits survive. To illustrate, if a call with a dialed number of 555-331-2610 arrives, it is translated to 32085, and an IP phone (or other dial peer) associated with that extension receives the call. A PSTN call with a dialed number of 551-2618 results in extension 79988 receiving the call.
Example 6-9. Translation Rules
Router#show running-config voice translation-rule 23 rule 1 /12611/ /37002/ rule 2 /12612/ /37262/ rule 3 /12613/ /37990/ rule 4 /12614/ /57514/ rule 5 /12615/ /30631/ rule 6 /12616/ /50043/ rule 7 /12617/ /28787/ rule 8 /12618/ /79988/ rule 9 /12619/ /68278/ rule 10 /12610/ /32085/ voice translation-profile to_261x translate called 23 controller T1 2/0 framing esf linecode b8zs pri-group timeslots 1-24 interface Serial2/0:23 no ip address no logging event link-status isdn switch-type primary-5ess isdn incoming-voice voice voice-port 2/0:23 echo-cancel coverage 64 dial-peer voice 1261 pots translation-profile incoming to_261x incoming called-number 1261. direct-inward-dial port 2/0:23
The syntax for translation rules can be cryptic if you are unfamiliar with regular expressions. But it is a very powerful facility to manipulate digits, and it is not tied to Cisco CME, so you can use it on any Cisco IOS voice-enabled router.
Here are some considerations when using the Cisco IOS voice translation rules feature:
When applying translation rules to ephone-dns, there is a side effect that if no rule is matched, an extra post-dial delay is incurred. As a workaround, create a dummy translation rule that acts as a pass-through. For example, if no rule is applied to extension-to-extension calls, and the extensions all start with five, add a rule that "translates" five to five, just to make sure that a rule is always matched, and the delay is not incurred.
Cisco CME dialplan-pattern Command
The Cisco CME dialplan-pattern command allows E.164 numbers to be mapped to extension numbers or, put another way, to extract the extension number from a longer DID number. The dialplan-pattern command does not actually translate the number (although the effect from a call routing point of view is the same). It instead creates multiple dial peers that allow different dialed numbers to terminate on the same phone.
The dialplan-pattern command can be used in some cases (calls to IP phones) to achieve the same call routing as can be achieved by using translation rules. Because these two features operate differently, you should think carefully about which method to use. If you use both methods, you should be clear about how these might interplay with each other to affect your call routing. The dialplan-pattern command is explained in more detail in Chapter 7, "Connecting Multiple Cisco CMEs with VoIP."
The CLI shown in Example 6-10 does the same mapping as the number translation discussed previously for employee Grace.
Example 6-10. Cisco CME dialplan-pattern Command
Router#show running-config telephony-service load 7960-7940 P00303020214 max-ephones 48 max-dn 192 ip source-address 10.1.3.1 port 2000 system message CUE System 2691 create cnf-files version-stamp 7960 Jul 15 2003 13:48:12 dialplan-pattern 1 510395.... extension-length 4 voicemail 6800 max-conferences 8 web admin system name cue password cue dn-webedit time-webedit
Some considerations about using the Cisco CME dialplan-pattern feature include the following:
PSTN Trunk Failover
Part I: Cisco IP Communications Express Overview
Introducing Cisco IPC Express
Building a Cisco IPC Express Network
Cisco IPC Express Architecture Overview
Part II: Feature Operation and Applications
Cisco IP Phone Options
Cisco CME Call Processing Features
Cisco CME PSTN Connectivity Options
Connecting Multiple Cisco CMEs with VoIP
Integrating Cisco CME with Cisco CallManager
Cisco IPC Express Automated Attendant Options
Cisco IPC Express Integrated Voice Mail
Cisco CME External Voice Mail Options
Additional External Applications with Cisco CME
Part III: Administration and Management
Cisco IPC Express General Administration and Initial System Setup
Configuring and Managing Cisco IPC Express Systems
Cisco IPC Express System Configuration Example
Part IV: Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Basic Cisco IPC Express Features
Troubleshooting Advanced Cisco CME Features
Troubleshooting Cisco CME Network Integration
Troubleshooting Cisco UE System Features
Troubleshooting Cisco UE Automated Attendant
Troubleshooting Cisco UE Integrated Voice Mail Features
Part V: Appendixes
Appendix A. Cisco IPC Express Features, Releases, and Ordering Information
Appendix B. Sample Cisco UE AA Scripts
Appendix C. Cisco Unity Express Database Schema