Advanced Features

Cisco ASA provides many advanced features to suit your site-to-site VPN implementations. These features include the following:

  • OSPF updates over IPSec
  • Reverse route injection
  • NAT Traversal (NAT-T)
  • Tunnel default gateway

OSPF Updates over IPSec

As discussed in Chapter 6, "IP Routing," Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) uses multicast methodology to communicate with its neighbors. IPSec, on the other hand, does not allow encapsulation of the multicast traffic. Cisco ASA solves this problem by statically defining neighbors using the neighbor command, which sends unicast OSPF packets to the remote VPN peer. Refer to Chapter 6 for in-depth coverage of this feature.

Example 15-15 shows how to set up the outside interface as a nonbroadcast media and specify the remote VPN peer as the OSPF neighbor on the outside interface.

Example 15-15. OSPF Updates over IPSec

Chicago(config)# interface GigabitEthernet0/0

Chicago(config-if)# nameif outside

Chicago(config-if)# security-level 0

Chicago(config-if)# ip address

Chicago(config-if)# ospf network point-to-point non-broadcast

Chicago(config)# router ospf 1

Chicago(config-router)# network area 0

Chicago(config-router)# neighbor interface outside


The security Cisco ASA uses the outside interface as the source of the OSPF packets and the neighbor's IP address as the destination address. Verify that the crypto ACL includes an entry to encrypt packets from to


Reverse Route Injection

Reverse route injection (RRI) is a way to distribute remote network information into the local network with the help of a routing protocol. With RRI, the Cisco ASA automatically adds static routes to the routing table and then announces these routes to its neighbors on the private network using OSPF. To configure RRI, you simply set the crypto map instance for reverse route:

crypto map map-name seq-numset reverse-route

Figure 15-3 shows an IPSec topology that is using OSPF to propagate the remote private network information into the local LAN of the Chicago ASA.

Figure 15-3. Example of RRI in the ASA

Example 15-16 illustrates how RRI can be enabled on the ASA in Chicago as depicted in Figure 15-3.

Example 15-16. Configuration of Reverse Route Injection

Chicago(config)# crypto map IPSec_map 10 match address encrypt-acl

Chicago(config)# crypto map IPSec_map 10 set peer

Chicago(config)# crypto map IPSec_map 10 set transform-set myset

Chicago(config)# crypto map IPSec_map 10 set reverse-route

To check if the ASA is adding the remote network information in the routing table, type show route, as illustrated in Example 15-17.

Example 15-17. Routing Table on the ASA

Chicago# show route

S [1/0] via, outside

C is directly connected, inside

C is directly connected, outside

S [1/0] via, outside

If you see the static route for the remote private network in the routing table, the next step is to advertise it to local OSPF peers, as shown in Example 15-18.

Example 15-18. OSPF Configuration on the ASA

Chicago(config)# router ospf 10

Chicago(config-router)# network area 0

Chicago(config-router)# redistribute static subnets

The internal router (Router1) will receive this route and install it in its routing table, as demonstrated in Example 15-19.

Example 15-19. Routing Table on a Router

Router1# show ip route

C is directly connected, Ethernet0

C is directly connected, FastEthernet0

O E2 [110/20] via, 00:00:03, Ethernet0


NAT Traversal

Traditionally, the IPSec tunnels fail to pass traffic if there is a PAT device between the peers. Cisco ASA uses ESP which does not have any Layer 4 information. Thus a PAT device usually drops IPSec packets. To remedy this problem, Cisco drafted an IETF standard called NAT Traversal (NAT-T) to encapsulate the ESP packets into UDP port 4500 so that the PAT device knows how to translate the encrypted packets. NAT-T is dynamically negotiated if the following two conditions are met:

  • Both VPN peers are NAT-T capable.
  • There is a NAT or PAT device between the peers.

To enable NAT-T globally on the ASA, the command syntax is

isakmp nat-traversal [keepalives]

Keepalives range between 10 and 3600 seconds. If you don't specify the keepalive, the ASA uses 20 seconds as the default. In many cases, the NAT/PAT devices time out the UDP port 4500 entries if there is no active traffic passing through them. NAT-T keepalives are used so that the security Cisco ASA can send periodic keepalive messages to prevent the entries from timing out.

If NAT-T is globally enabled, and you do not want one of the peers to negotiate it, you can use the crypto map nat-t-disable command for that specific sequence number. The command syntax is

crypto map map-name seq-num set nat-t-disable

Example 15-20 illustrates how to disable NAT-T for a peer defined in sequence map 10.

Example 15-20. Disabling NAT-T for a Peer

Chicago(config)# crypto map IPSec_map 10 set nat-t-disable


Tunnel Default Gateway

A Layer 3 device typically has a default gateway that is used to route packets when the destination address is not found in the routing table. Tunnel default gateway, a concept first introduced in the VPN3000 concentrators, is used to route the packets if they reach the security Cisco ASA over an IPSec tunnel and if their destination IP address is not found in the routing table. The tunneled traffic can be either remote access or site-to-site VPN traffic. The tunnel default gateway next-hop address is generally the IP address of the inside router, Router1 (illustrated in Figure 15-3), or any Layer 3 device.

The tunnel default gateway feature is important if you do not want to define routes about your internal networks to the Cisco ASA and you rather want the tunneled traffic to be sent to the internal router for routing. To set up a tunnel default gateway, add the keyword tunneled to the statically configured default route. Example 15-21 shows the configuration of the Cisco ASA with the tunnel default gateway specified as, located on the inside interface.

Example 15-21. Tunnel Default Gateway Configuration

Chicago(config)# route inside tunneled

Part I: Product Overview

Introduction to Network Security

Product History

Hardware Overview

Part II: Firewall Solution

Initial Setup and System Maintenance

Network Access Control

IP Routing

Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)

Application Inspection

Security Contexts

Transparent Firewalls

Failover and Redundancy

Quality of Service

Part III: Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) Solution

Intrusion Prevention System Integration

Configuring and Troubleshooting Cisco IPS Software via CLI

Part IV: Virtual Private Network (VPN) Solution

Site-to-Site IPSec VPNs

Remote Access VPN

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)

Part V: Adaptive Security Device Manager

Introduction to ASDM

Firewall Management Using ASDM

IPS Management Using ASDM

VPN Management Using ASDM

Case Studies

Cisco Asa(c) All-in-one Firewall, IPS, And VPN Adaptive Security Appliance
Cisco ASA: All-in-One Firewall, IPS, and VPN Adaptive Security Appliance
ISBN: 1587052091
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2006
Pages: 231 © 2008-2020.
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