Optional Arguments

Table of contents:

Function parameters can have default values, making them optional. The default value for an optional argument can be a constant expression or an expression that does not involve local variables.

Parameters with default arguments must be the right-most (trailing) parameters in the parameter list.

Trailing arguments with default values can be left out of the function call. The corresponding parameters will then be initialized with the default values.

From the viewpoint of the function, if it is called with one missing argument, then that argument must correspond to the last parameter in the list. If two arguments are missing, they must correspond to the last two parameters in the list (and so forth).

Because an optional argument specifier applies to a function's interface, it belongs with the declaration, not the definition of the function if the declaration is kept in a separate header file.

A function with default arguments can be called in more than one way. If all arguments for a function are optional, the function can be called with no arguments. Declaring a function with n optional arguments can be thought of as an abbreviated way of declaring n+1 functions, one for each possible way of calling the function.

In Example 5.3 the constructor for the Date class has three parameters; each parameter is optional and defaults to 0.

Example 5.3. src/functions/date.h

[ . . . . ]
class Date {
public:
 Date(int d = 0, int m = 0, int y = 0);
 void display(bool eoln = true) const;
private:
 int m_Day, m_Month, m_Year;
};
[ . . . . ]

The constructor definition shown in Example 5.4 looks the same as usual; no default arguments need to be specified there.

Example 5.4. src/functions/date.cpp

#include 
#include "date.h"
#include 

Date::Date(int d , int m , int y )
: m_Day(d), m_Month(m), m_Year(y) {

 static QDate currentDate = QDate::currentDate(); <-- 1

 if (m_Day == 0) m_Day = currentDate.day();
 if (m_Month == 0) m_Month = currentDate.month();
 if (m_Year == 0) m_Year = currentDate.year();
}

void Date::display(bool eoln) const {
 using namespace std;
 cout << m_Year << "/" << m_Month << '/' << m_Day;
 if (eoln)
 cout << endl;
}
 

(1)We use Qt's QDate class only to get the current date.

If 0 is the actual value of any of the supplied arguments, it will be replaced with a sensible value, derived from the current date.

Example 5.5. src/functions/date-test.cpp

#include "date.h"
#include 

int main() {
 using namespace std;
 Date d1;
 Date d2(15);
 Date d3(23, 8);
 Date d4(19, 11, 2003);

 d1.display(false);
 cout << '	';
 d2.display();
 d3.display(false);
 cout << '	';
 d4.display();
 return 0;
}

The client code in Example 5.5 demonstrates that by defining default values we are, in effect, overloading the function. The different versions of the function execute the same code, but with different values passed in for the later parameters.

So if we ran this program on November 26, 2005, it should show us this in the output:

src/functions> qmake
src/functions> make
[ compiler linker messages ]
src/functions> ./functions
11/26/2005 11/15/2005
8/23/2005 11/19/2003
src/functions>


Operator Overloading

Part I: Introduction to C++ and Qt 4

C++ Introduction

Classes

Introduction to Qt

Lists

Functions

Inheritance and Polymorphism

Part II: Higher-Level Programming

Libraries

Introduction to Design Patterns

QObject

Generics and Containers

Qt GUI Widgets

Concurrency

Validation and Regular Expressions

Parsing XML

Meta Objects, Properties, and Reflective Programming

More Design Patterns

Models and Views

Qt SQL Classes

Part III: C++ Language Reference

Types and Expressions

Scope and Storage Class

Statements and Control Structures

Memory Access

Chapter Summary

Inheritance in Detail

Miscellaneous Topics

Part IV: Programming Assignments

MP3 Jukebox Assignments

Part V: Appendices

MP3 Jukebox Assignments

Bibliography

MP3 Jukebox Assignments



An Introduction to Design Patterns in C++ with Qt 4
An Introduction to Design Patterns in C++ with Qt 4
ISBN: 0131879057
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 268

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