The keyword operator is used in C++ to define a new meaning for an operator symbol such as +, , =, *, &, and so forth. Adding a new meaning to an operator symbol is a specialized form of function overloading.
Operator overloading provides a more compact syntax for calling functions, which can lead to more readable code (assuming the operators are used in ways that are commonly understood).
It is possible to overload nearly all of the existing operator symbols in C++. For example, suppose that we want to define a class named Complex to represent complex numbers.[1] To specify how to do the basic arithmetic operations with these objects we could overload the four arithmetic operator symbols. While we are at it, we could also overload the insertion symbol so that output statements become more readable.
[1] Complex numbers were introduced initially to describe the solutions to equations such as x2 6x + 25 = 0. Using the quadratic formula one can easily determine that the roots of this equation are 3 + 4i and 3 4i. The complex numbers consist of all numbers of the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers and i is the square root of 1. Since that set includes such numbers for which b = 0, it is clear that the real numbers are a subset of the complex numbers.
Example 5.6 shows a class definition with both members and nonmember operators.
Example 5.6. src/complex/complex.h
#include using namespace std; class Complex { // binary nonmember friend function declarations friend ostream& operator<<(ostream& out, const Complex& c); friend Complex operator(const Complex& c1, const Complex & c2); friend Complex operator*(const Complex& c1, const Complex & c2); friend Complex operator/(const Complex& c1, const Complex & c2); public: Complex(double re = 0.0, double im = 0.0); // binary member function operators Complex& operator+= (const Complex& c); Complex& operator= (const Complex& c); Complex operator+(const Complex & c2); < 1 private: double m_Re, m_Im; };

The operators declared in Example 5.6 are all binary (accept 2 operands). For the member functions, there is only one formal parameter because the first (left) operand is implicit: *this. The member operators definitions are shown in Example 5.7.
Example 5.7. src/complex/complex.cpp
[ . . . . ] Complex& Complex::operator+=(const Complex& c) { m_Re += c.m_Re; m_Im += c.m_Im; return *this; } Complex Complex::operator+(const Complex& c2) { return Complex(m_Re + c2.m_Re, m_Im + c2.m_Im); } Complex& Complex::operator=(const Complex& c) { m_Re = c.m_Re; m_Im = c.m_Im; return *this; } 
Example 5.8 shows the definitions of the nonmember friend functions. They are defined like ordinary global functions.
Example 5.8. src/complex/complex.cpp
[ . . . . ] ostream& operator<<(ostream& out, const Complex& c) { out << '(' << c.m_Re << ',' << c.m_Im << ')' ; return out; } Complex operator(const Complex& c1, const Complex& c2) { return Complex(c1.m_Re  c2.m_Re, c1.m_Im  c2.m_Im); } 
We have expressed the mathematical rules that define each of the four algebraic operations in C++ code. These details are encapsulated and hidden so that client code does not need to deal with them. Example 5.9 shows some client code that demonstrates and tests the Complex class.
Example 5.9. src/complex/complextest.cpp
#include "complex.h" #include int main() { using namespace std; Complex c1(3.4, 5.6); Complex c2(7.8, 1.2); cout << c1 << " + " << c2 << " = " << c1 + c2 << endl; cout << c1 << "  " << c2 << " = " << c1  c2 << endl; Complex c3 = c1 * c2; cout << c1 << " * " << c2 << " = " << c3 << endl; cout << c3 << " / " << c2 << " = " << c3 / c2 << endl; cout << c3 << " / " << c1 << " = " << c3 / c1 << endl; return 0; } 
Here is the output of the program in Example 5.9:
(3.4,5.6) + (7.8,1.2) = (11.2,6.8) (3.4,5.6)  (7.8,1.2) = (4.4,4.4) (3.4,5.6) * (7.8,1.2) = (19.8,47.76) (19.8,47.76) / (7.8,1.2) = (3.4,5.6) (19.8,47.76) / (3.4,5.6) = (7.8,1.2)
There are some limitations on operator overloading. Only builtin operators can be overloaded. It is not possible to introduce definitions for symbols such as $, ", or ' that do not already possess operator definitions. Although new meanings can be defined for builtin operators, their associativity and precedence remain the same.
It is possible to overload all of the builtin binary and unary operators except for these:
Here is one way to remember which operators can be overloaded: If it has a dot in it (.) anywhere, it's probably not allowed. 
Overloading the comma operator is allowed, but not recommended until you are a C++ expert. 
We have provided a complete table of operator symbols and their characteristics in Section 19.1.
Exercises: Operator Overloading
1. 
Continue the development of the Fraction class by adding overloaded operators for addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and various kinds of comparison. In each case the parameter should be a const Fraction&. Write client code to test your new operators. 
2. 
To be really useful, a Fraction object should be able to interact with other kinds of numbers. Expand the definition of Fraction so that the operators in Exercise 1 also work for int and double. It should be clear, for example, how to get frac + num to be correctly evaluated. How would you handle the expression num + frac, where frac is a Fraction and num is an int? Write client code to test your new functions. 
3. 
Add arithmetic and comparison operators to the class Complex. Write client code to test your expanded class. 
Part I: Introduction to C++ and Qt 4
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