So far we have dealt only with linear structures and trees. A linear structure can be considered a special case of a tree, where every node (except for the single leaf) has exactly one child. Just as trees generalize linear structures, graphs generalize trees (Figure 15-1). The key difference between trees and graphs is that, in a graph, there may be more than one path between two nodes.

Figure 15-1. A linear structure (left) is a special case of a tree (middle), which is in turn a special case of a graph (right).

This chapter begins with discussions of graph terminology (Section 15.1), representation (Section 15.2), and traversal (Section 15.3). The remaining sections present several algorithms related to graphs. An incredible variety of computational problems can be phrased in terms of graphs. For example:

- Consider a set of tasks in a complicated cooking or industrial fabrication process. Some of the tasks have others as prerequisites. In what order can the tasks be performed? This is the topological sorting problem, addressed in Section 15.4.
- What is the shortest driving route from Los Angeles to Chicago? Section 15.5 covers algorithms for finding shortest paths.
- Given a set of computers in various locations in a building, how can they be connected with the least amount of cable? This is the problem of finding a minimum spanning tree, discussed in Section 15.6.

Part I: Object-Oriented Programming

Encapsulation

Polymorphism

Inheritance

- Inheritance
- Extending a Class
- The Object Class
- Packages and Access Levels
- Summary
- Vocabulary
- Problems
- Projects

Part II: Linear Structures

Stacks and Queues

- Stacks and Queues
- The Stack Interface
- The Call Stack
- Exceptions
- The Queue Interface
- Summary
- Vocabulary
- Problems
- Projects

Array-Based Structures

- Array-Based Structures
- Shrinking and Stretching Arrays
- Implementing Stacks and Queues
- The List Interface
- Iterators
- The Java Collections Framework: A First Look
- Summary
- Vocabulary
- Problems
- Projects

Linked Structures

- Linked Structures
- List Nodes
- Stacks and Queues
- The LinkedList Class
- The Java Collections Framework Revisited
- Summary
- Vocabulary
- Problems
- Projects

Part III: Algorithms

Analysis of Algorithms

- Analysis of Algorithms
- Timing
- Asymptotic Notation
- Counting Steps
- Best, Worst, and Average Case
- Amortized Analysis
- Summary
- Vocabulary
- Problems
- Projects

Searching and Sorting

- Searching and Sorting
- Linear Search
- Binary Search
- Insertion Sort
- The Comparable Interface
- Sorting Linked Lists
- Summary
- Vocabulary
- Problems
- Projects

Recursion

- Recursion
- Thinking Recursively
- Analyzing Recursive Algorithms
- Merge Sort
- Quicksort
- Avoiding Recursion
- Summary
- Vocabulary
- Problems
- Projects

Part IV: Trees and Sets

Trees

Sets

- Sets
- The Set Interface
- Ordered Lists
- Binary Search Trees
- Hash Tables
- The Java Collections Framework Again
- Summary
- Vocabulary
- Problems
- Projects

Part V: Advanced Topics

Advanced Linear Structures

- Advanced Linear Structures
- Bit Vectors
- Sparse Arrays
- Contiguous Representation of Multidimensional Arrays
- Advanced Searching and Sorting
- Summary
- Vocabulary
- Problems
- Projects

Strings

Advanced Trees

- Advanced Trees
- Heaps
- Disjoint Set Clusters
- Digital Search Trees
- Red-Black Trees
- Summary
- Vocabulary
- Problems
- Projects

Graphs

- Graphs
- Terminology
- Representation
- Graph Traversal
- Topological Sorting
- Shortest Paths
- Minimum Spanning Trees
- Summary
- Vocabulary
- Problems
- Projects

Memory Management

Out to the Disk

- Out to the Disk
- Interacting with Files
- Compression
- External Sorting
- B-Trees
- Summary
- Vocabulary
- Problems
- Projects

Part VI: Appendices

A. Review of Java

- A. Review of Java
- A.1. The First Program
- A.2. Variables and Types
- A.3. Loops
- A.4. Interacting with the User
- A.5. Branching
- A.6. Methods and Breaking Out
- A.7. Constants
- A.8. Operators
- A.9. Debugging
- A.10. Coding Conventions

B. Unified Modeling Language

C. Summation Formulae

- C. Summation Formulae
- C.1. Sum Notation
- C.2. Sum of Constants
- C.3. Sum of First n Integers
- C.4. Sums of Halves and Doubles
- C.5. Upper Limit on Sum of a Function
- C.6. Constant Factors

D. Further Reading

Index

Data Structures and Algorithms in Java

ISBN: 0131469142

EAN: 2147483647

EAN: 2147483647

Year: 2004

Pages: 216

Pages: 216

Authors: Peter Drake

- Chapter I e-Search: A Conceptual Framework of Online Consumer Behavior
- Chapter VIII Personalization Systems and Their Deployment as Web Site Interface Design Decisions
- Chapter XI User Satisfaction with Web Portals: An Empirical Study
- Chapter XIII Shopping Agent Web Sites: A Comparative Shopping Environment
- Chapter XVIII Web Systems Design, Litigation, and Online Consumer Behavior

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