.NODE

Stored Programs as an Alternative to Expensive SQL

Sometimes we can use a stored program to perform query or DML operations that perform badly in standard SQL. This usually happens when the "pure" SQL statement becomes overly complex because of limitations in the SQL syntax or when the MySQL optimizer isn't able to come up with a sensible plan for your SQL query. In this section we offer two scenarios in which a stored program can be expected to outperform a SQL statement that executes the same logical steps.

22.4.1. Avoid Self-Joins with Procedural Logic

One situation in which a stored program might offer a better solution is where you are forced to construct a query that joins a table to itself in order to filter for the required rows. For instance, in Example 22-5, we issue a SQL statement that retrieves the most valuable order for each customer over the past few months.

Example 22-5. Finding the maximum sale for each customer

SELECT s.customer_id,s.product_id,s.quantity, s.sale_value
 FROM sales s, (SELECT customer_id,max(sale_value) max_sale_value
 FROM sales
 GROUP BY customer_id) t
 WHERE t.customer_id=s.customer_id
 AND t.max_sale_value=s.sale_value
 AND s.sale_date>date_sub(currdate( ),interval 6 month);

This is an expensive SQL statement, partially because we first need to create a temporary table to hold the customer ID and maximum sale value and then join that back to the sales table to find the full details for each of those rows.

MySQL doesn't provide SQL syntax that would allow us to return this data without an expensive self-join. However, we can use a stored program to retrieve the data in a single pass through the sales table. Example 22-6 shows a stored program that stores maximum sales for each customer into a temporary table (max_sales_by_customer) from which we can later select the results.

Example 22-6. Stored program to return maximum sales for each customer over the last 6 months

1 CREATE PROCEDURE sp_max_sale_by_cust( )
2 MODIFIES SQL DATA
3 BEGIN
4 DECLARE last_sale INT DEFAULT 0;
5 DECLARE l_last_customer_id INT DEFAULT -1;
6 DECLARE l_customer_id INT;
7 DECLARE l_product_id INT;
8 DECLARE l_quantity INT;
9 DECLARE l_sale_value DECIMAL(8,2);
10 DECLARE counter INT DEFAULT 0;
11
12 DECLARE sales_csr CURSOR FOR
13 SELECT customer_id,product_id,quantity, sale_value
14 FROM sales
15 WHERE sale_date>date_sub(currdate( ),interval 6 month)
16 ORDER BY customer_id,sale_value DESC;
17
18 DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR NOT FOUND SET last_sale=1;
19
20 OPEN sales_csr;
21 sales_loop: LOOP
22 FETCH sales_csr INTO l_customer_id,l_product_id,l_quantity,l_sale_value;
23 IF (last_sale=1) THEN
24 LEAVE sales_loop;
25 END IF;
26
27 IF l_customer_id <> l_last_customer_id THEN
28 /* This is a new customer so first row will be max sale*/
29 INSERT INTO max_sales_by_customer
30 (customer_id,product_id,quantity,sale_value)
31 VALUES(l_customer_id,l_product_id,l_quantity,l_sale_value);
32 END IF;
33
34 SET l_last_customer_id=l_customer_id;
35
36 END LOOP;
37
38 END;

Let's look at the most significant lines in this program:

Line(s)

Explanation

12

Declare a cursor that will return sales for the past 6 months ordered by customer_id and then by descending sale_value.

27-32

Check to see whether we have encountered a new customer_id. The first row for any given customer will be the maximum sale for that customer, so we insert that row into a temporary table (line 30).

The stored program is significantly faster than the standard SQL solution. Figure 22-3 shows the elapsed time for the two solutions.

Figure 22-3. Using a stored program to optimize a complex self-join

 

22.4.2. Optimize Correlated Updates

A correlated update is an UPDATE statement that contains a correlated subquery in the SET clause and/or WHERE clause. Correlated updates are often good candidates for optimization through procedural execution. In Example 22-7 we have an UPDATE statement that updates all customers who are also employees, and assigns the employee's manager as their sales representative.

Example 22-7. Correlated UPDATE statement

UPDATE customers c
 SET sales_rep_id =
 (SELECT manager_id
 FROM employees
 WHERE surname = c.contact_surname
 AND firstname = c.contact_firstname
 AND date_of_birth = c.date_of_birth)
 WHERE (contact_surname,
 contact_firstname,
 date_of_birth) IN
 (SELECT surname, firstname, date_of_birth
 FROM employees and );

Note that the UPDATE statement needs to access the employees table twice: once to identify customers who are employees and again to find the manager's identifier for those employees.

Example 22-8 offers a stored program that provides an alternative to the correlated update. The stored program identifies those customers who are also employees using a cursor. For each of the customers retrieved by the cursor, an UPDATE is issued.

Example 22-8. Stored program alternative to the correlated update

CREATE PROCEDURE sp_correlated_update( )
 MODIFIES SQL DATA
BEGIN
 DECLARE last_customer INT DEFAULT 0;
 DECLARE l_customer_id INT ;
 DECLARE l_manager_id INT;

 DECLARE cust_csr CURSOR FOR
 select c.customer_id,e.manager_id
 from customers c,
 employees e
 where e.surname=c.contact_surname
 and e.firstname=c.contact_firstname
 and e.date_of_birth=c.date_of_birth;

 DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR NOT FOUND SET last_customer=1;

 OPEN cust_csr;
 cust_loop: LOOP
 FETCH cust_csr INTO l_customer_id,l_manager_id;
 IF (last_customer=1) THEN
 LEAVE cust_loop;
 END IF;
 UPDATE customers
 SET sales_rep_id=l_manager_id
 WHERE customer_id=l_customer_id;
 END LOOP;

END;

Because the stored program does not have to do two separate accesses of the customers table, it is significantly faster than the standard SQL. Figure 22-4 compares the performance of the two approaches.

Figure 22-4. Performance of a correlated update and stored program alternative


Part I: Stored Programming Fundamentals

Introduction to MySQL Stored Programs

MySQL Stored Programming Tutorial

Language Fundamentals

Blocks, Conditional Statements, and Iterative Programming

Using SQL in Stored Programming

Error Handling

Part II: Stored Program Construction

Creating and Maintaining Stored Programs

Transaction Management

MySQL Built-in Functions

Stored Functions

Triggers

Part III: Using MySQL Stored Programs in Applications

Using MySQL Stored Programs in Applications

Using MySQL Stored Programs with PHP

Using MySQL Stored Programs with Java

Using MySQL Stored Programs with Perl

Using MySQL Stored Programs with Python

Using MySQL Stored Programs with .NET

Part IV: Optimizing Stored Programs

Stored Program Security

Tuning Stored Programs and Their SQL

Basic SQL Tuning

Advanced SQL Tuning

Optimizing Stored Program Code

Best Practices in MySQL Stored Program Development





MySQL Stored Procedure Programming
MySQL Stored Procedure Programming
ISBN: 0596100892
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 208
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