Transaction Design Guidelines

A well-designed transaction should have the following properties:

  • The integrity of the database will be maintained at all times.
  • The duration and coverage of locks will be minimized. Locks should be applied to as few rows as possible and maintained for the shortest possible duration.
  • Rollbacks will be minimaltransactions that eventually issue a rollback have needlessly consumed resources.
  • User expectations about the persistence of data will be met. For instance, a user who clicks a Save or Apply button has a reasonable expectation that the data will not disappear if he subsequently clicks Cancel on another page.

To achieve these goals, we recommend the following general guidelines for transaction design:

 

Keep transactions small

A transaction should generally include as small a logical unit of work as possible to reduce the duration of locks.

 

Avoid a transaction design that encourages rollbacks

For instance, rather than trying an insert and rolling back if there is a "duplicate key" error, check for the existence of the key value before issuing the DML.

 

Avoid savepoints whenever possible

The existence of a savepoint may indicate that you have failed to check for success criteria before issuing a DML statement and may indicate a transaction design that encourages rollbacks.

 

By default, rely on a pessimistic locking strategy

Lock rows that you SELECT if the results of the SELECT statement affect DML executed later in the transaction. Pessimistic locking is easy to implement and is a robust solution. However, issue SELECTs with FOR UPDATE as late in the transaction as possible to minimize duration of locks.

 

Consider optimistic locking for throughput-critical transactions

Optimistic locking requires more coding (to handle failed transactions) and may lead to user frustration if the optimism is misplaced. However, optimistic locking can reduce lock duration and thereby increase throughput for high-volume transactions.

 

Explicitly commence transactions and avoid leaving transactions "dangling"

Stored programs that issue transactional statements should generally take responsibility for commencing and terminating the transaction, rather than assuming that some external program is going to handle a COMMIT or ROLLBACK.

While these are reasonable guidelines, there are sometimes trade-offs that you will need to consider:

  • Unlike any other MySQL statement, the COMMIT statement always requires a physical write to disk to complete. Therefore, although it is a good idea in general to commit as soon as some logical unit of work is completed, there is a strong performance incentive to commit infrequently when possible. This usually means that for OLTP operations, you commit when the logical transaction is complete, whereas in batch programs and bulk operations, you commit infrequently. We discuss the performance implications of COMMIT in Chapter 21.
  • Checking all possible success criteria before issuing a DML statement might be overly expensive in some cases. It might be preferable to let a DML statement fail and then roll back to a savepoint under certain circumstances.
  • The trade-offs for the optimistic and pessimistic locking strategies are heavily dependent on the characteristics of your application.
  • Modular design considerations may sometimes lead you to write a stored program in such a way that the control of the overall transaction is delegated to a higher-level program.

Part I: Stored Programming Fundamentals

Introduction to MySQL Stored Programs

MySQL Stored Programming Tutorial

Language Fundamentals

Blocks, Conditional Statements, and Iterative Programming

Using SQL in Stored Programming

Error Handling

Part II: Stored Program Construction

Creating and Maintaining Stored Programs

Transaction Management

MySQL Built-in Functions

Stored Functions

Triggers

Part III: Using MySQL Stored Programs in Applications

Using MySQL Stored Programs in Applications

Using MySQL Stored Programs with PHP

Using MySQL Stored Programs with Java

Using MySQL Stored Programs with Perl

Using MySQL Stored Programs with Python

Using MySQL Stored Programs with .NET

Part IV: Optimizing Stored Programs

Stored Program Security

Tuning Stored Programs and Their SQL

Basic SQL Tuning

Advanced SQL Tuning

Optimizing Stored Program Code

Best Practices in MySQL Stored Program Development

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MySQL Stored Procedure Programming
MySQL Stored Procedure Programming
ISBN: 0596100892
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 208
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