Appendix A Cultural Categorization Characteristics




Talks half of the time

Talks most of the time

Listens most of the time

Does one thing at a time

Does several things at a time

Reacts to partner’s action

Plans ahead step-by-step

Plans grand outline only

Looks at general principles

Polite but direct


Polite, indirect

Partly conceals feelings

Displays feelings

Conceals feelings

Confronts with logic

Confronts emotionally

Never confronts

Dislikes losing face

Has good excuses

Must not lose face

Rarely interrupts

Often interrupts

Doesn’t interrupt


People oriented

Very people oriented

Sticks to facts

Feelings before facts

Statements are promises

Truth before diplomacy

Flexible truth

Diplomacy over truth

Controls environment

Manipulates environment

Lives in harmony with environment

Values and follows rules

Often disregards rules

Interprets rules flexibly

Gains status by achievements

Gains status by connections and charisma

Gains status by birthright and education

Speech is for information

Speech is for opinions

Speech is to promote harmony

Works fixed hours

Likes flexible hours

Work, leisure, and life are intertwined

Values privacy

Is gregarious, inquisitive

Respectful, likes sharing

Is data-oriented

Is dialogue oriented

Likes networking

Talks at medium speed

Talks fast

Talks slowly

Thinks briefly, then speaks

Speech leads thought (thinks aloud)

Contemplates, then speaks briefly

Completes action chains

Completes human transactions

Harmonizes by doing things at appropriate times

Results oriented



Sticks to agenda


Often asks for “repeats”

Compromises to achieve deal

Tries to win argument

Compromises for future relations

Borrows and gives rarely

Borrows and gives freely

Borrows rarely, gives ritually

Minimizes power distance

Maximizes power distance

Observes fixed power distance

Respects officialdom

Seeks favors, pulls strings

Uses connections

Separates social and professional lives

Mixes social and professional lives

Connects social and professional lives

Deal based on products, facts, and figures

Deal based on liking the client

Deal based on harmony and appropriateness

Written word important

Spoken word important

Face-to-face contact important

Contracts are binding

Contracts are ideal documents in an ideal world

Contracts are statements of intent and renegotiable

Quick responses to written communication

Responses to letters slow due to preference for spoken messages

Responses to letters slow due to need for lateral clearances

Short-term profit is desirable

Increasing the status of the organization is important

Long-term profit and increased market share are important

Likes short pauses between speech turns

Overlapping speech is acceptable

Likes long pauses between speech turns

Restrained body language

Unrestrained body language

Subtle body language

Rationalism and science dominate thinking

Religion retains strong influence

Ethics and philosophies (e.g., Confucianism) dominate thinking

Cultural Imperative
Cultural Imperative: Global Trends in the 21st Century
ISBN: 1877864986
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2002
Pages: 108
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