This chapter discusses the fundamentals of measurement theory. We outline the relationships among theoretical concepts, definitions, and measurement, and describe some basic measures that are used frequently. It is important to distinguish the levels of the conceptualization proces s, from abstract concepts, to definitions that are used operationally, to actual measurements. Depending on the concept and the operational definition derived from it, different levels of measurement may be applied: nominal scale, ordinal scale, interval scale, and ratio scale. It is also beneficial to spell out the explicit differences among some basic measures such as ratio, proportion, percentage, and rate. Significant amounts of wasted effort and resources can be avoided if these fundamental measurements are well understood .
We then focus on measurement quality. We discuss the most important issues in measurement quality, namely, reliability and validity, and their relationships with measurement errors. We then discuss the role of correlation in observational studies and the criteria for causality .
What Is Software Quality?
Software Development Process Models
Fundamentals of Measurement Theory
Software Quality Metrics Overview
Applying the Seven Basic Quality Tools in Software Development
Defect Removal Effectiveness
The Rayleigh Model
Exponential Distribution and Reliability Growth Models
Quality Management Models
In-Process Metrics for Software Testing
Complexity Metrics and Models
Metrics and Lessons Learned for Object-Oriented Projects
Measuring and Analyzing Customer Satisfaction
Conducting In-Process Quality Assessments
Conducting Software Project Assessments
Dos and Donts of Software Process Improvement
Using Function Point Metrics to Measure Software Process Improvements
A Project Assessment Questionnaire