Zope is an open source web-application server and toolkit, written in and customizable with Python. It is a server-side technology that allows web designers to implement sites and applications by publishing Python object hierarchies on the Web. With Zope, programmers can focus on writing objects, and let Zope handle most of the underlying HTTP and CGI details. If you are interested in implementing more complex web sites than the form-based interactions we've seen in the last three chapters, you should investigate Zope: it can obviate many of the tasks that web scripters wrestle with on a daily basis.
Sometimes compared to commercial web toolkits such as ColdFusion, Zope is made freely available over the Internet by a company called Digital Creations and enjoys a large and very active development community. Indeed, many attendees at a recent Python conference were attracted by Zope, which had its own conference track. The use of Zope has spread so quickly that many Pythonistas now look to it as Python's "killer application" -- a system so good that it naturally pushes Python into the development spotlight. At the least, Zope offers a new, higher-level way of developing sites for the Web, above and beyond raw CGI scripting.
 Over the years, observers have also pointed to other systems as possible Python "killer applications," including Grail, Python's COM support on Windows, and JPython. I hope they're all right, and fully expect new killers to arise after this edition is published. But at the time that I write this, Zope is attracting an astonishing level of interest among both developers and investors.
15.2.1 Zope Components
Zope began life as a set of tools (part of which was named "Bobo") placed in the public domain by Digital Creations. Since then, it has grown into a large system with many components, a growing body of add-ons (called "products" in Zope parlance), and a fairly steep learning curve. We can't do it any sort of justice in this book, but since Zope is one of the most popular Python-based applications at this writing, I'd be remiss if I didn't provide a few details here.
In terms of its core components, Zope includes the following parts:
Zope Object Request Broker (ORB)
At the heart of Zope, the ORB dispatches incoming HTTP requests to Python objects and returns results to the requestor, working as a perpetually running middleman between the HTTP CGI world and your Python objects. The Zope ORB is described further in the next section.
HTML document templates
Zope provides a simple way to define web pages as templates, with values automatically inserted from Python objects. Templates allow an object's HTML representation to be defined independently of the object's implementation. For instance, values of attributes in a class instance object may be automatically plugged into a template's text by name. Template coders need not be Python coders, and vice versa.
To record data persistently, Zope comes with a full object-oriented database system for storing Python objects. The Zope object database is based on the Python pickle serialization module we'll meet in the next part of this book, but adds support for transactions, lazy object fetches (sometimes called delayed evaluation), concurrent access, and more. Objects are stored and retrieved by key, much as they are with Python's standard shelve module, but classes must subclass an imported Persistent superclass, and object stores are instances of an imported PickleDictionary object. Zope starts and commits transactions at the start and end of HTTP requests.
Zope also includes a management framework for administrating sites, as well as a product API used to package components. Zope ships with these and other components integrated into a whole system, but each part can be used on its own as well. For instance, the Zope object database can be used in arbitrary Python applications by itself.
15.2.2 What's Object Publishing?
If you're like me, the concept of publishing objects on the Web may be a bit vague at first glance, but it's fairly simple in Zope: the Zope ORB automatically maps URLs requested by HTTP into calls on Python objects. Consider the Python module and function in Example 15-1 .
Example 15-1. PP2EInternetOthermessages.py
"A Python module published on the Web by Zope" def greeting(size='brief', topic='zope'): "a published Python function" return 'A %s %s introduction' % (size, topic)
This is normal Python code, of course, and says nothing about Zope, CGI, or the Internet at large. We may call the function it defines from the interactive prompt as usual:
C:...PP2EInternetOther>python >>> import messages >>> messages.greeting( ) 'A brief zope introduction' >>> messages.greeting(size='short') 'A short zope introduction' >>> messages.greeting(size='tiny', topic='ORB') 'A tiny ORB introduction'
But if we place this module file, along with Zope support files, in the appropriate directory on a server machine running Zope, it automatically becomes visible on the Web. That is, the function becomes a published object -- it can be invoked through a URL, and its return value becomes a response page. For instance, if placed in a cgi-bin directory on a server called myserver.net, the following URLs are equivalent to the three calls above:
http://www.myserver.net/cgi-bin/messages/greeting http://www.myserver.net/cgi-bin/messages/greeting?size=short http://www.myserver.net/cgi-bin/messages/greeting?size=tiny&topic=ORB
When our function is accessed as a URL over the Web this way, the Zope ORB performs two feats of magic:
In other words, URLs in Zope become remote function calls, not just script invocations. The functions (and methods) called by accessing URLs are coded in Python, and may live at arbitrary places on the Net. It's as if the Internet itself becomes a Python namespace, with one module directory per server.
Zope is a server-side technology based on objects, not text streams; the main advantage of this scheme is that the details of CGI input and output are handled by Zope, while programmers focus on writing domain objects, not on text generation. When our function is accessed with a URL, Zope automatically finds the referenced object, translates incoming parameters to function call arguments, runs the function, and uses its return value to generate an HTTP response. In general, a URL like:
is mapped by the Zope ORB running on servername into a call to a Python object in a Python module file installed in dirpath, taking the form:
The return value is formatted into an HTML response page sent back to the client requestor (typically a browser). By using longer paths, programs can publish complete hierarchies of objects; Zope simply uses Python's generic object-access protocols to fetch objects along the path.
As usual, a URL like those listed here can appear as the text of a hyperlink, typed manually into a web browser, or used in an HTTP request generated by a program (e.g., using Python's urllib module in a client-side script). Parameters are listed at the end of these URLs directly, but if you post information to this URL with a form instead, it works the same way:
Here, the action tag references our function's URL again; when the user fills out this form and presses its submit button, inputs from the form sent by the browser magically show up as arguments to the function again. These inputs are typed by the user, not hardcoded at the end of a URL, but our published function doesn't need to care. In fact, Zope recognizes a variety of parameter sources and translates them all into Python function or method arguments: form inputs, parameters at the end of URLs, HTTP headers and cookies, CGI environment variables, and more.
This just scratches the surface of what published objects can do, though. For instance, published functions and methods can use the Zope object database to save state permanently, and Zope provides many more advanced tools such as debugging support, precoded HTTP servers for use with the ORB, and finer-grained control over responses to URL requestors.
For all things Zope, visit http://www.zope.org. There, you'll find up-to-date releases, as well as documentation ranging from tutorials to references to full-blown Zope example sites. Also see this book's CD (view CD-ROM content online at http://examples.oreilly.com/python2) for a copy of the Zope distribution, current as of the time we went to press.
Part I: System Interfaces
Parallel System Tools
Larger System Examples I
Larger System Examples II
Part II: GUI Programming
Graphical User Interfaces
A Tkinter Tour, Part 1
A Tkinter Tour, Part 2
Larger GUI Examples
Part III: Internet Scripting
Larger Web Site Examples I
Larger Web Site Examples II
Advanced Internet Topics
Part IV: Assorted Topics
Databases and Persistence
Text and Language
Part V: Integration
VI: The End
Conclusion Python and the Development Cycle