Python/Tkinter for Tcl/Tk Converts

Python Tkinter for Tcl Tk Converts

At the start of this chapter, I mentioned that Tkinter is Python's interface to the Tk GUI library, originally written for the Tcl language. To help readers migrating from Tcl to Python, and to summarize some of the main topics we met in this chapter, this section contrasts Python's Tk interface with Tcl's. This mapping also helps make Tk references written for other languages more useful to Python developers.

In general terms, Tcl's command-string view of the world differs widely from Python's object-based approach to programming. In terms of Tk programming, though, the syntactic differences are fairly small. Here are some of the main distinctions in Python's Tkinter interface:

Creation

Widgets are created as class instance objects by calling a widget class.

Masters (parents)

Parents are previously created objects, passed to widget-class constructors.

Widget options

Options are constructor or config keyword arguments, or indexed keys.

Operations

Widget operations (actions) become Tkinter widget class object methods.

Callbacks

Callback handlers are any callable objects: function, method, lambda, etc.

Extension

Widgets are extended using Python class inheritance mechanisms.

Composition

Interfaces are constructed by attaching objects, not concatenating names.

Linked variables (next chapter)

Variables associated with widgets are Tkinter class objects with methods.

In Python, widget creation commands (e.g., button) are Python class names that start with an uppercase letter (e.g., Button), two-word widget operations (e.g., add command) become a single method name with an underscore (e.g., add_command), and the "configure" method can be abbreviated as "config" as in Tcl. In Chapter 7, we will also see that Tkinter "variables" associated with widgets take the form of class instance objects (e.g., StringVar, IntVar) with get and set methods, not simple Python or Tcl variable names. Table 6-2 shows some of the primary language mappings in more concrete terms.

Table 6-2. Tk to Tkinter Mappings

Operation

Tcl/Tk

Python/Tkinter

Creation

frame .panel
panel = Frame()

Masters

button .panel.quit
quit = Button(panel)

Options

button .panel.go -fg black
go = Button(panel, fg='black')

Configure

.panel.go config -bg red
go.config(bg='red') 
go['bg'] = 'red'

Actions

.popup invoke
popup.invoke()

Packing

pack .panel -side left -fill x
panel.pack(side=LEFT, fill=X)

Some of these differences are more than just syntactic, of course. For instance, Python builds an internal widget object tree based on parent arguments passed to widget constructors, without ever requiring concatenated widget pathname strings. Once you've made a widget object, you can use it directly by reference. Tcl coders can hide some dotted pathnames by manually storing them in variables, but that's not quite the same as Python's purely object-based model.

Once you've written a few Python/Tkinter scripts, though, the coding distinctions in the Python object world will probably seem trivial. At the same time, Python's support for OO techniques adds an entirely new component to Tk development; you get the same widgets, plus Python's support for code structure and reuse.

Introducing Python

Part I: System Interfaces

System Tools

Parallel System Tools

Larger System Examples I

Larger System Examples II

Part II: GUI Programming

Graphical User Interfaces

A Tkinter Tour, Part 1

A Tkinter Tour, Part 2

Larger GUI Examples

Part III: Internet Scripting

Network Scripting

Client-Side Scripting

Server-Side Scripting

Larger Web Site Examples I

Larger Web Site Examples II

Advanced Internet Topics

Part IV: Assorted Topics

Databases and Persistence

Data Structures

Text and Language

Part V: Integration

Extending Python

Embedding Python

VI: The End

Conclusion Python and the Development Cycle





Programming Python
Python Programming for the Absolute Beginner, 3rd Edition
ISBN: 1435455002
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2000
Pages: 245
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