.NODE

Standard Streams

Module sys is also the place where the standard input, output, and error streams of your Python programs live:

>>> for f in (sys.stdin, sys.stdout, sys.stderr): print f
...
', mode 'r' at 762210>
', mode 'w' at 762270>
', mode 'w' at 7622d0>

The standard streams are simply pre-opened Python file objects that are automatically connected to your program's standard streams when Python starts up. By default, they are all tied to the console window where Python (or a Python program) was started. Because the print statement and raw_input functions are really nothing more than user-friendly interfaces to the standard output and input streams, they are similar to using stdout and stdin in sys directly:

>>> print 'hello stdout world'
hello stdout world

>>> sys.stdout.write('hello stdout world' + '
')
hello stdout world

>>> raw_input('hello stdin world>')
hello stdin world>spam
'spam'

>>> print 'hello stdin world>',; sys.stdin.readline( )[:-1]
hello stdin world>eggs

'eggs'

Standard Streams on Windows

Windows users: if you click a .py Python program's filename in a Windows file explorer to start it (or launch it with os.system), a DOS console box automatically pops up to serve as the program's standard stream. If your program makes windows of its own, you can avoid this console pop-up window by naming your program's source-code file with a .pyw extension, not .py. The .pyw extension simply means a .py source file without a DOS pop-up on Windows.

One caveat: in the Python 1.5.2 release, .pyw files can only be run, not imported -- the .pyw is not recognized as a module name. If you want a program to both be run without a DOS console pop-up and be importable elsewhere, you need both .py and .pyw files; the .pyw may simply serve as top-level script logic that imports and calls the core logic in the .py. See Section 9.4 in Chapter 9, for an example.

Also note that because printed output goes to this DOS pop-up when a program is clicked, scripts that simply print text and exit will generate an odd "flash" -- the DOS console box pops up, output is printed into it, and the pop-up goes immediately away (not the most user-friendly of features!). To keep the DOS pop-up box around so you can read printed output, simply add a raw_input( ) call at the bottom of your script to pause for an Enter key press before exiting.

2.10.1 Redirecting Streams to Files and Programs

Technically, standard output (and print) text appears in the console window where a program was started, standard input (and raw_input) text comes from the keyboard, and standard error is used to print Python error messages to the console window. At least that's the default. It's also possible to redirect these streams both to files and other programs at the system shell, and to arbitrary objects within a Python script. On most systems, such redirections make it easy to reuse and combine general-purpose command-line utilities.

2.10.1.1 Redirecting streams to files

Redirection is useful for things like canned (precoded) test inputs: we can apply a single test script to any set of inputs by simply redirecting the standard input stream to a different file each time the script is run. Similarly, redirecting the standard output stream lets us save and later analyze a program's output; for example, testing systems might compare the saved standard output of a script with a file of expected output, to detect failures.

Although it's a powerful paradigm, redirection turns out to be straightforward to use. For instance, consider the simple read-evaluate-print loop program in Example 2-6.

Example 2-6. PP2ESystemStreams eststreams.py

# read numbers till eof and show squares

def interact( ):
 print 'Hello stream world' # print sends to sys.stdout
 while 1:
 try:
 reply = raw_input('Enter a number>') # raw_input reads sys.stdin
 except EOFError:
 break # raises an except on eof
 else: # input given as a string
 num = int(reply)
 print "%d squared is %d" % (num, num ** 2)
 print 'Bye'

if __name__ == '__main__': 
 interact( ) # when run, not imported

As usual, the interact function here is automatically executed when this file is run, not when it is imported. By default, running this file from a system command line makes that standard stream appear where you typed the Python command. The script simply reads numbers until it reaches end-of-file in the standard input stream (on Windows, end-of-file is usually the two-key combination Ctrl+Z; on Unix, type Ctrl+D instead[8]):

[8] Notice that raw_input raises an exception to signal end-of-file, but file read methods simply return an empty string for this condition. Because raw_input also strips the end-of-line character at the end of lines, an empty string result means an empty line, so an exception is necessary to specify the end-of-file condition. File read methods retain the end-of-line character, and denote an empty line as instead of "". This is one way in which reading sys.stdin directly differs from raw_input. The latter also accepts a prompt string that is automatically printed before input is accepted.

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>python teststreams.py
Hello stream world
Enter a number>12
12 squared is 144
Enter a number>10
10 squared is 100
Enter a number>

But on both Windows and Unix-like platforms, we can redirect the standard input stream to come from a file with the < filename shell syntax. Here is a command session in a DOS console box on Windows that forces the script to read its input from a text file, input.txt. It's the same on Linux, but replace the DOS type command with a Unix cat command:

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>type input.txt
8
6

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>python teststreams.py < input.txt
Hello stream world
Enter a number>8 squared is 64
Enter a number>6 squared is 36
Enter a number>Bye

Here, the input.txt file automates the input we would normally type interactively -- the script reads from this file instead of the keyboard. Standard output can be similarly redirected to go to a file, with the > filename shell syntax. In fact, we can combine input and output redirection in a single command:

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>python teststreams.py < input.txt > output.txt

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>type output.txt
Hello stream world
Enter a number>8 squared is 64
Enter a number>6 squared is 36
Enter a number>Bye

This time, the Python script's input and output are both mapped to text files, not the interactive console session.

2.10.1.2 Chaining programs with pipes

On Windows and Unix-like platforms, it's also possible to send the standard output of one program to the standard input of another, using the | shell character between two commands. This is usually called a "pipe" operation -- the shell creates a pipeline that connects the output and input of two commands. Let's send the output of the Python script to the standard "more" command-line program's input to see how this works:

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>python teststreams.py < input.txt | more

Hello stream world
Enter a number>8 squared is 64
Enter a number>6 squared is 36
Enter a number>Bye

Here, teststreams's standard input comes from a file again, but its output (written by print statements) is sent to another program, not a file or window. The receiving program is more -- a standard command-line paging program available on Windows and Unix-like platforms. Because Python ties scripts into the standard stream model, though, Python scripts can be used on both ends -- one Python script's output can always be piped into another Python script's input:

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>type writer.py
print "Help! Help! I'm being repressed!"
print 42

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>type reader.py
print 'Got this" "%s"' % raw_input( )
import sys
data = sys.stdin.readline( )[:-1]
print 'The meaning of life is', data, int(data) * 2

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>python writer.py | python reader.py
Got this" "Help! Help! I'm being repressed!"
The meaning of life is 42 84

This time, two Python programs are connected. Script reader gets input from script writer; both scripts simply read and write, oblivious to stream mechanics. In practice, such chaining of programs is a simple form of cross-program communications. It makes it easy to reuse utilities written to communicate via stdin and stdout in ways we never anticipated. For instance, a Python program that sorts stdin text could be applied to any data source we like, including the output of other scripts. Consider the Python command-line utility scripts in Examples Example 2-7 and Example 2-8 that sort and sum lines in the standard input stream.

Example 2-7. PP2ESystemStreamssorter.py

import sys
lines = sys.stdin.readlines( ) # sort stdin input lines,
lines.sort( ) # send result to stdout
for line in lines: print line, # for further processing

Example 2-8. PP2ESystemStreamsadder.py

import sys, string
sum = 0
while 1:
 try:
 line = raw_input( ) # or call sys.stdin.readlines( ):
 except EOFError: # or sys.stdin.readline( ) loop
 break
 else:
 sum = sum + string.atoi(line) # int(line[:-1]) treats 042 as octal
print sum

We can apply such general-purpose tools in a variety of ways at the shell command line, to sort and sum arbitrary files and program outputs:

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>type data.txt 
123
000
999
042

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>python sorter.py < data.txt   sort a file
000
042
123
999

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>type data.txt | python adder.py   sum program output
1164

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>type writer2.py 
for data in (123, 0, 999, 42):
 print '%03d' % data

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>python writer2.py | python sorter.py   sort py output
000
042
123
999

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>python writer2.py | python sorter.py | python adder.py 
1164

The last command here connects three Python scripts by standard streams -- the output of each prior script is fed to the input of the next via pipeline shell syntax.

If you look closely, you'll notice that sorter reads all of stdin at once with the readlines method, but adder reads one line at a time. If the input source is another program, some platforms run programs connected by pipes in parallel. On such systems, reading line-by-line works better if the data streams being passed about are large -- readers need not wait until writers are completely finished to get busy processing data. Because raw_input just reads stdin, the line-by-line scheme used by adder can always be coded with sys.stdin too:

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>type adder2.py
import sys, string
sum = 0
while 1:
 line = sys.stdin.readline( )
 if not line: break
 sum = sum + string.atoi(line[:-1])
print sum

Changing sorter to read line-by-line may not be a big performance boost, though, because the list sort method requires the list to already be complete. As we'll see in Chapter 17, manually coded sort algorithms are likely to be much slower than the Python list sorting method.

2.10.1.3 Redirected streams and user interaction

At the start of the last section, we piped teststreams.py output into the standard more command-line program with a command like this:

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>python teststreams.py < input.txt | more

But since we already wrote our own "more" paging utility in Python near the start of this chapter, why not set it up to accept input from stdin too? For example, if we change the last three lines of file more.py listed earlier in this chapter to this:

if __name__ == '__main__': # when run, not when imported
 if len(sys.argv) == 1: # page stdin if no cmd args
 more(sys.stdin.read( ))
 else:
 more(open(sys.argv[1]).read( ))

Then it almost seems as if we should be able to redirect the standard output of teststreams.py into the standard input of more.py :

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>python teststreams.py < input.txt | python ..more.py
Hello stream world
Enter a number>8 squared is 64
Enter a number>6 squared is 36
Enter a number>Bye

This technique works in general for Python scripts. Here, teststreams.py takes input from a file again. And, as in the last section, one Python program's output is piped to another's input -- the more.py script in the parent ("..") directory.

2.10.1.3.1 Reading keyboard input

But there's a subtle problem lurking in the preceding more.py command. Really, chaining only worked there by sheer luck: if the first script's output is long enough for more to have to ask the user if it should continue, the script will utterly fail. The problem is that the augmented more.py uses stdin for two disjoint purposes. It reads a reply from an interactive user on stdin by calling raw_input, but now also accepts the main input text on stdin. When the stdin stream is really redirected to an input file or pipe, we can't use it to input a reply from an interactive user; it contains only the text of the input source. Moreover, because stdin is redirected before the program even starts up, there is no way to know what it meant prior to being redirected in the command line.

If we intend to accept input on stdin and use the console for user interaction, we have to do a bit more. Example 2-9 shows a modified version of the more script that pages the standard input stream if called with no arguments, but also makes use of lower-level and platform-specific tools to converse with a user at a keyboard if needed.

Example 2-9. PP2ESystemmoreplus.py

#############################################################
# split and interactively page a string, file, or stream of
# text to stdout; when run as a script, page stdin or file 
# whose name is passed on cmdline; if input is stdin, can't
# use it for user reply--use platform-specific tools or gui;
#############################################################

import sys, string

def getreply( ):
 """ 
 read a reply key from an interactive user
 even if stdin redirected to a file or pipe
 """
 if sys.stdin.isatty( ): # if stdin is console
 return raw_input('?') # read reply line from stdin 
 else:
 if sys.platform[:3] == 'win': # if stdin was redirected
 import msvcrt # can't use to ask a user 
 msvcrt.putch('?')
 key = msvcrt.getche( ) # use windows console tools
 msvcrt.putch('
') # getch( ) does not echo key
 return key
 elif sys.platform[:5] == 'linux': # use linux console device 
 print '?', # strip eoln at line end
 console = open('/dev/tty')
 line = console.readline( )[:-1]
 return line
 else:
 print '[pause]' # else just pause--improve me
 import time # see also modules curses, tty
 time.sleep(5) # or copy to temp file, rerun
 return 'y' # or gui popup, tk key bind

def more(text, numlines=10):
 """
 split multi-line string to stdout
 """
 lines = string.split(text, '
')
 while lines:
 chunk = lines[:numlines]
 lines = lines[numlines:]
 for line in chunk: print line
 if lines and getreply( ) not in ['y', 'Y']: break 

if __name__ == '__main__': # when run, not when imported
 if len(sys.argv) == 1: # if no command-line arguments
 more(sys.stdin.read( )) # page stdin, no raw_inputs
 else:
 more(open(sys.argv[1]).read( )) # else page filename argument

Most of the new code in this version shows up in its getreply function. The file isatty method tells us if stdin is connected to the console; if it is, we simply read replies on stdin as before. Unfortunately, there is no portable way to input a string from a console user independent of stdin, so we must wrap the non-stdin input logic of this script in a sys.platform test:

  • On Windows, the built-in msvcrt module supplies low-level console input and output calls (e.g., msvcrt.getch( ) reads a single key press).
  • On Linux, the system device file named /dev/tty gives access to keyboard input (we can read it as though it were a simple file).
  • On other platforms, we simply run a built-in time.sleep call to pause for five seconds between displays (this is not at all ideal, but is better than not stopping at all, and serves until a better nonportable solution can be found).

Of course, we only have to add such extra logic to scripts that intend to interact with console users and take input on stdin. In a GUI application, for example, we could instead pop up dialogs, bind keyboard-press event to run callbacks, and so on (we'll meet GUIs in Chapter 6).

Armed with the reusable getreply function, though, we can safely run our moreplus utility in a variety of ways. As before, we can import and call this module's function directly, passing in whatever string we wish to page:

>>> from moreplus import more
>>> more(open('System.txt').read( ))
This directory contains operating system interface examples.

Many of the examples in this unit appear elsewhere in the examples
distribution tree, because they are actually used to manage other
programs. See the README.txt files in the subdirectories here
for pointers.

Also as before, when run with a command-line argument, this script interactively pages through the named file's text:

C:...PP2ESystem>python moreplus.py System.txt
This directory contains operating system interface examples.

Many of the examples in this unit appear elsewhere in the examples
distribution tree, because they are actually used to manage other
programs. See the README.txt files in the subdirectories here
for pointers.

C:...PP2ESystem>python moreplus.py moreplus.py
#############################################################
# split and interactively page a string, file, or stream of
# text to stdout; when run as a script, page stdin or file
# whose name is passed on cmdline; if input is stdin, can't
# use it for user reply--use platform-specific tools or gui;
#############################################################

import sys, string

def getreply( ):
?n

But now the script also correctly pages text redirected in to stdin from either a file or command pipe, even if that text is too long to fit in a single display chunk. On most shells, we send such input via redirection or pipe operators like these:

C:...PP2ESystem>python moreplus.py < moreplus.py
#############################################################
# split and interactively page a string, file, or stream of
# text to stdout; when run as a script, page stdin or file
# whose name is passed on cmdline; if input is stdin, can't
# use it for user reply--use platform-specific tools or gui;
#############################################################

import sys, string

def getreply( ):
?n

C:...PP2ESystem>type moreplus.py | python moreplus.py
#############################################################
# split and interactively page a string, file, or stream of
# text to stdout; when run as a script, page stdin or file
# whose name is passed on cmdline; if input is stdin, can't
# use it for user reply--use platform-specific tools or gui;
#############################################################

import sys, string

def getreply( ):
?n

This works the same on Linux, but again use the cat command instead of type. Finally, piping one Python script's output into this script's input now works as expected, without botching user interaction (and not just because we got lucky):

C:......SystemStreams>python teststreams.py < input.txt | python ..moreplus.py
Hello stream world
Enter a number>8 squared is 64
Enter a number>6 squared is 36
Enter a number>Bye

Here, the standard output of one Python script is fed to the standard input of another Python script located in the parent directory: moreplus.py reads the output of teststreams.py.

All of the redirections in such command lines work only because scripts don't care what standard input and output really are -- interactive users, files, or pipes between programs. For example, when run as a script, moreplus.py simply reads stream sys.stdin; the command-line shell (e.g., DOS on Windows, csh on Linux) attaches such streams to the source implied by the command line before the script is started. Scripts use the preopened stdin and stdout file objects to access those sources, regardless of their true nature.

And for readers keeping count, we have run this single more pager script in four different ways: by importing and calling its function, by passing a filename command-line argument, by redirecting stdin to a file, and by piping a command's output to stdin. By supporting importable functions, command-line arguments, and standard streams, Python system tools code can be reused in a wide variety of modes.

2.10.2 Redirecting Streams to Python Objects

All of the above standard stream redirections work for programs written in any language that hooks into the standard streams, and rely more on the shell's command-line processor than on Python itself. Command-line redirection syntax like < filename and | program is evaluated by the shell, not Python. A more Pythonesque form of redirection can be done within scripts themselves, by resetting sys.stdin and sys.stdout to file-like objects.

The main trick behind this mode is that anything that looks like a file in terms of methods will work as a standard stream in Python. The object's protocol, not the object's specific datatype, is all that matters. That is:

  • Any object that provides file-like read methods can be assigned to sys.stdin to make input come from that object's read methods.
  • Any object that defines file-like write methods can be assigned to sys.stdout; all standard output will be sent to that object's methods.

Because print and raw_input simply call the write and readline methods of whatever objects sys.stdout and sys.stdin happen to reference, we can use this trick to both provide and intercept standard stream text with objects implemented as classes. Example 2-10 shows a utility module that demonstrates this concept.

Example 2-10. PP2ESystemStreams edirect.py

##########################################################
# file-like objects that save all standard output text in 
# a string, and provide standard input text from a string;
# redirect runs a passed-in function with its output and
# input streams reset to these file-like class objects;
##########################################################

import sys, string # get built-in modules

class Output: # simulated output file
 def __init__(self): 
 self.text = '' # empty string when created
 def write(self, string): # add a string of bytes
 self.text = self.text + string 
 def writelines(self, lines): # add each line in a list
 for line in lines: self.write(line)

class Input: # simulated input file
 def __init__(self, input=''): # default argument 
 self.text = input # save string when created
 def read(self, *size): # optional argument
 if not size: # read N bytes, or all
 res, self.text = self.text, ''
 else:
 res, self.text = self.text[:size[0]], self.text[size[0]:]
 return res
 def readline(self):
 eoln = string.find(self.text, '
') # find offset of next eoln
 if eoln == -1: # slice off through eoln
 res, self.text = self.text, ''
 else:
 res, self.text = self.text[:eoln+1], self.text[eoln+1:]
 return res

def redirect(function, args, input): # redirect stdin/out
 savestreams = sys.stdin, sys.stdout # run a function object 
 sys.stdin = Input(input) # return stdout text
 sys.stdout = Output( )
 try:
 apply(function, args)
 except:
 sys.stderr.write('error in function! ')
 sys.stderr.write("%s, %s
" % (sys.exc_type, sys.exc_value))
 result = sys.stdout.text
 sys.stdin, sys.stdout = savestreams
 return result

This module defines two classes that masquerade as real files:

  • Output provides the write method protocol expected of output files, but saves all output as it is written, in an in-memory string.
  • Input provides the protocol expected of input files, but provides input on demand from an in-memory string, passed in at object construction time.

The redirect function at the bottom of this file combines these two objects to run a single function with input and output redirected entirely to Python class objects. The passed-in function so run need not know or care that its print statements, raw_input calls, and stdin and stdout method calls are talking to a class instead of a real file, pipe, or user.

To demonstrate, import and run the interact function at the heart of the teststreams script we've been running from the shell (to use the redirection utility function, we need to deal in terms of functions, not files). When run directly, the function reads from the keyboard and writes to the screen, just as if it were run as a program without redirection:

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>python
>>> from teststreams import interact
>>> interact( )
Hello stream world
Enter a number>2
2 squared is 4
Enter a number>3
3 squared is 9
Enter a number
>>>

Now, let's run this function under the control of the redirection function in redirect.py, and pass in some canned input text. In this mode, the interact function takes its input from the string we pass in ('4 5 6 ' -- three lines with explicit end-of-line characters), and the result of running the function is a string containing all the text written to the standard output stream:

>>> from redirect import redirect
>>> output = redirect(interact, ( ), '4
5
6
')
>>> output
'Hello stream world12Enter a number>4 squared is 1612Enter a number>
5 squared is 2512Enter a number>6 squared is 3612Enter a number>Bye12'

The result is a single, long string, containing the concatenation of all text written to standard output. To make this look better, we can split it up with the standard string module:

>>> from string import split
>>> for line in split(output, '
'): print line
...
Hello stream world
Enter a number>4 squared is 16
Enter a number>5 squared is 25
Enter a number>6 squared is 36
Enter a number>Bye

Better still, we can reuse the more.py module we saw earlier in this chapter; it's less to type and remember, and is already known to work well:

>>> from PP2E.System.more import more
>>> more(output)
Hello stream world
Enter a number>4 squared is 16
Enter a number>5 squared is 25
Enter a number>6 squared is 36
Enter a number>Bye

This is an artificial example, of course, but the techniques illustrated are widely applicable. For example, it's straightforward to add a GUI interface to a program written to interact with a command-line user. Simply intercept standard output with an object like the Output class shown earlier, and throw the text string up in a window. Similarly, standard input can be reset to an object that fetches text from a graphical interface (e.g., a popped-up dialog box). Because classes are plug-and-play compatible with real files, we can use them in any tool that expects a file. Watch for a GUI stream-redirection module named guiStreams in Chapter 9.

2.10.3 Other Redirection Options

Earlier in this chapter, we also studied the built-in os.popen function, which provides a way to redirect another command's streams from within a Python program. As we saw, this function runs a shell command line (e.g., a string we would normally type at a DOS or csh prompt), but returns a Python file-like object connected to the command's input or output stream. Because of that, the os.popen tool can be considered another way to redirect streams of spawned programs, and a cousin to the techniques we just met: Its effect is much like the shell | command-line pipe syntax for redirecting streams to programs (in fact its name means "pipe open"), but it is run within a script and provides a file-like interface to piped streams. It's similar in spirit to the redirect function, but is based on running programs (not calling functions), and the command's streams are processed in the spawning script as files (not tied to class objects).

By passing in the desired mode flag, we redirect a spawned program's input or output streams to a file in the calling scripts:

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>type hello-out.py
print 'Hello shell world'

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>type hello-in.py
input = raw_input( )
open('hello-in.txt', 'w').write('Hello ' + input + '
')

C:...PP2ESystemStreams>python
>>> import os
>>> pipe = os.popen('python hello-out.py') # 'r' is default--read stdout
>>> pipe.read( )
'Hello shell world12'

>>> pipe = os.popen('python hello-in.py', 'w')
>>> pipe.write('Gumby
') # 'w'--write to program stdin
>>> pipe.close( ) # 
 at end is optional
>>> open('hello-in.txt').read( )
'Hello Gumby12'

The popen call is also smart enough to run the command string as an independent process on Unix and Linux. There are additional popen-like tools in the Python library that allow scripts to connect to more than one of the commands' streams. For instance, the popen2 module includes functions for hooking into both a command's input and output streams (popen2.popen2), and another for connecting to standard error as well (popen2.popen3):

import popen2
childStdout, childStdin = popen2.popen2('python hello-in-out.py')
childStdin.write(input)
output = childStdout.read( )

childStdout, childStdin, childStderr = popen2.popen3('python hello-in-out.py')

These two calls work much like os.popen, but connect additional streams. When I originally wrote this, these calls only worked on Unix-like platforms, not on Windows, because they relied on a fork call in Python 1.5.2. As of the Python 2.0 release, they now work well on Windows too.

Speaking of which: on Unix-like platforms, the combination of the calls os.fork, os.pipe, os.dup, and some os.exec variants can be used to start a new independent program with streams connected to the parent program's streams (that's how popen2 works its magic). As such, it's another way to redirect streams, and a low-level equivalent to tools like os.popen. See Chapter 3 for more on all these calls, especially its section on pipes.

Python 2.0 now also makes the popen2 and popen3 calls available in the os module. (For example, os.popen2 is the same as popen2.popen2, except that the order of stdin and stdout in the call's result tuple is swapped.) In addition, the 2.0 release extends the print statement to include an explicit file to which output is to be sent. A statement of the form print >>file stuff prints stuff to file, instead of stdout. The net effect is similar to simply assigning sys.stdout to an object.

Capturing the stderr Stream

We've been focusing on stdin and stdout redirection, but stderr can be similarly reset to files, pipes, and objects. This is straightforward within a Python script. For instance, assigning sys.stderr to another instance of a class like Output in the preceding example allows your script to intercept text written to standard error too. The popen3 call mentioned previously also allows stderr to be intercepted within a script.

Redirecting standard error from a shell command line is a bit more complex, and less portable. On most Unix-like systems, we can usually capture stderr output by using shell-redirection syntax of the form command 2>&1. This won't work on Windows 9x platforms, though, and can even vary per Unix shell; see your shell's manpages for more details.

Introducing Python

Part I: System Interfaces

System Tools

Parallel System Tools

Larger System Examples I

Larger System Examples II

Part II: GUI Programming

Graphical User Interfaces

A Tkinter Tour, Part 1

A Tkinter Tour, Part 2

Larger GUI Examples

Part III: Internet Scripting

Network Scripting

Client-Side Scripting

Server-Side Scripting

Larger Web Site Examples I

Larger Web Site Examples II

Advanced Internet Topics

Part IV: Assorted Topics

Databases and Persistence

Data Structures

Text and Language

Part V: Integration

Extending Python

Embedding Python

VI: The End

Conclusion Python and the Development Cycle

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Programming Python
Python Programming for the Absolute Beginner, 3rd Edition
ISBN: 1435455002
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2000
Pages: 245
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