Forked processes are the traditional way to structure parallel tasks, and are a fundamental part of the Unix tool set. Forking is based on the notion of copying programs: when a program calls the fork routine, the operating system makes a new copy of that program in memory, and starts running that copy in parallel with the original. Some systems don't really copy the original program (it's an expensive operation), but the new copy works as if it was a literal copy.
After a fork operation, the original copy of the program is called the parent process, and the copy created by os.fork is called the child process. In general, parents can make any number of children, and children can create child processes of their own -- all forked processes run independently and in parallel under the operating system's control. It is probably simpler in practice than theory, though; the Python script in Example 3-1 forks new child processes until you type a "q" at the console.
Example 3-1. PP2ESystemProcessesfork1.py
# forks child processes until you type 'q' import os def child( ): print 'Hello from child', os.getpid( ) os._exit(0) # else goes back to parent loop def parent( ): while 1: newpid = os.fork( ) if newpid == 0: child( ) else: print 'Hello from parent', os.getpid( ), newpid if raw_input( ) == 'q': break parent( )
Python's process forking tools, available in the os module, are simply thin wrappers over standard forking calls in the C library. To start a new, parallel process, call the os.fork built-in function. Because this function generates a copy of the calling program, it returns a different value in each copy: zero in the child process, and the process ID of the new child in the parent. Programs generally test this result to begin different processing in the child only; this script, for instance, runs the child function in child processes only.
 At least in the current Python implementation, calling os.fork in a Python script actually copies the Python interpreter process (if you look at your process list, you'll see two Python entries after a fork). But since the Python interpreter records everything about your running script, it's okay to think of fork as copying your program directly. It really will, if Python scripts are ever compiled to binary machine code.
Unfortunately, this won't work on Windows today; fork is at odds with the Windows model, and a port of this call is still in the works. But because forking is ingrained into the Unix programming model, this script works well on Unix and Linux:
[mark@toy]$ python fork1.py Hello from parent 671 672 Hello from child 672 Hello from parent 671 673 Hello from child 673 Hello from parent 671 674 Hello from child 674 q
These messages represent three forked child processes; the unique identifiers of all the processes involved are fetched and displayed with the os.getpid call. A subtle point: The child process function is also careful to exit explicitly with an os._exit call. We'll discuss this call in more detail later in this chapter, but if it's not made, the child process would live on after the child function returns (remember, it's just a copy of the original process). The net effect is that the child would go back to the loop in parent and start forking children of its own (i.e., the parent would have grandchildren). If you delete the exit call and rerun, you'll likely have to type more than one "q" to stop, because multiple processes are running in the parent function.
In Example 3-1, each process exits very soon after it starts, so there's little overlap in time. Let's do something slightly more sophisticated to better illustrate multiple forked processes running in parallel. Example 3-2 starts up 10 copies of itself, each copy counting up to 10 with a one-second delay between iterations. The time.sleep built-in call simply pauses the calling process for a number of seconds (pass a floating-point value to pause for fractions of seconds).
Example 3-2. PP2ESystemProcessesfork-count.py
############################################################ # fork basics: start 10 copies of this program running in # parallel with the original; each copy counts up to 10 # on the same stdout stream--forks copy process memory, # including file descriptors; fork doesn't currently work # on Windows: use os.spawnv to start programs on Windows # instead; spawnv is roughly like a fork+exec combination; ############################################################ import os, time def counter(count): for i in range(count): time.sleep(1) print '[%s] => %s' % (os.getpid( ), i) for i in range(10): pid = os.fork( ) if pid != 0: print 'Process %d spawned' % pid else: counter(10) os._exit(0) print 'Main process exiting.'
When run, this script starts 10 processes immediately and exits. All 10 forked processes check in with their first count display one second later, and every second thereafter. Child processes continue to run, even if the parent process that created them terminates:
mark@toy]$ python fork-count.py Process 846 spawned Process 847 spawned Process 848 spawned Process 849 spawned Process 850 spawned Process 851 spawned Process 852 spawned Process 853 spawned Process 854 spawned Process 855 spawned Main process exiting. [mark@toy]$  => 0  => 0  => 0  => 0  => 0  => 0  => 0  => 0  => 0  => 0  => 1  => 1 ...more output deleted...
The output of all these processes shows up on the same screen, because they all share the standard output stream. Technically, a forked process gets a copy of the original process's global memory, including open file descriptors. Because of that, global objects like files start out with the same values in a child process. But it's important to remember that global memory is copied, not shared -- if a child process changes a global object, it changes its own copy only. (As we'll see, this works differently in threads, the topic of the next section.)
3.2.1 The fork/exec Combination
Examples Example 3-1 and Example 3-2 child processes simply ran a function within the Python program and exited. On Unix-like platforms, forks are often the basis of starting independently running programs that are completely different from the program that performed the fork call. For instance, Example 3-3 forks new processes until we type "q" again, but child processes run a brand new program instead of calling a function in the same file.
Example 3-3. PP2ESystemProcessesfork-exec.py
# starts programs until you type 'q' import os parm = 0 while 1: parm = parm+1 pid = os.fork( ) if pid == 0: # copy process os.execlp('python', 'python', 'child.py', str(parm)) # overlay program assert 0, 'error starting program' # shouldn't return else: print 'Child is', pid if raw_input( ) == 'q': break
If you've done much Unix development, the fork/exec combination will probably look familiar. The main thing to notice is the os.execlp call in this code. In a nutshell, this call overlays (i.e., replaces) the program running in the current process with another program. Because of that, the combination of os.fork and os.execlp means start a new process, and run a new program in that process -- in other words, launch a new program in parallel with the original program.
220.127.116.11 os.exec call formats
The arguments to os.execlp specify the program to be run by giving command-line arguments used to start the program (i.e., what Python scripts know as sys.argv). If successful, the new program begins running and the call to os.execlp itself never returns (since the original program has been replaced, there's really nothing to return to). If the call does return, an error has occurred, so we code an assert after it that will always raise an exception if reached.
There are a handful of os.exec variants in the Python standard library; some allow us to configure environment variables for the new program, pass command-line arguments in different forms, and so on. All are available on both Unix and Windows, and replace the calling program (i.e., the Python interpreter). exec comes in eight flavors, which can be a bit confusing unless you generalize:
os.execv( program, commandlinesequence)
The basic "v" exec form is passed an executable program's name, along with a list or tuple of command-line argument strings used to run the executable (that is, the words you would normally type in a shell to start a program).
os.execl( program, cmdarg1, cmdarg2,... cmdargN)
The basic "l" exec form is passed an executable's name, followed by one or more command-line arguments passed as individual function arguments. This is the same as os.execv(program, (cmdarg1, cmdarg2,...)).
Adding a "p" to the execv and execl names means that Python will locate the executable's directory using your system search-path setting (i.e., PATH).
Adding an "e" to the execv and execl names means an extra, last argument is a dictionary containing shell environment variables to send to the program.
Adding both "p" and "e" to the basic exec names means to use the search-path, and accept a shell environment settings dictionary.
So, when the script in Example 3-3 calls os.execlp, individually passed parameters specify a command line for the program to be run on, and the word "python" maps to an executable file according to the underlying system search-path setting ($PATH). It's as if we were running a command of the form python child.py 1 in a shell, but with a different command-line argument on the end each time.
18.104.22.168 Spawned child program
Just as when typed at a shell, the string of arguments passed to os.execlp by the fork-exec script in Example 3-3 starts another Python program file, shown in Example 3-4.
Example 3-4. PP2ESystemProcesseschild.py
import os, sys print 'Hello from child', os.getpid( ), sys.argv
Here is this code in action on Linux. It doesn't look much different from the original fork1.py, but it's really running a new program in each forked process. The more observant readers may notice that the child process ID displayed is the same in the parent program and the launched child.py program -- os.execlp simply overlays a program in the same process:
[mark@toy]$ python fork-exec.py Child is 1094 Hello from child 1094 1 Child is 1095 Hello from child 1095 2 Child is 1096 Hello from child 1096 3 q
There are other ways to start up programs in Python, including the os.system and os.popen we met in Chapter 2 (to start shell command lines), and the os.spawnv call we'll meet later in this chapter (to start independent programs on Windows); we further explore such process-related topics in more detail later in this chapter. We'll also discuss additional process topics in later chapters of this book. For instance, forks are revisited in Chapter 10, to deal with "zombies" -- dead processes lurking in system tables after their demise.
Part I: System Interfaces
Parallel System Tools
Larger System Examples I
Larger System Examples II
Part II: GUI Programming
Graphical User Interfaces
A Tkinter Tour, Part 1
A Tkinter Tour, Part 2
Larger GUI Examples
Part III: Internet Scripting
Larger Web Site Examples I
Larger Web Site Examples II
Advanced Internet Topics
Part IV: Assorted Topics
Databases and Persistence
Text and Language
Part V: Integration
VI: The End
Conclusion Python and the Development Cycle