Creating a Login System

Problem

You want your application to support a login system based on user accounts. Users will log in with a unique username and password, as in most commercial and community web sites.

Solution

Create a users table that contains nonnull username and password fields. The SQL to create this table should look something like this MySQL example:

	use mywebapp_development;
	DROP TABLE IF EXISTS users;
	CREATE TABLE users (
	 id INT(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
	 username VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,
	 password VARCHAR(40) NOT NULL,
	 PRIMARY KEY (id)
	);

Enter the main directory of the application and generate a User model corresponding to this table:

	$ ./script/generate model User
	 exists app/models/
	 exists test/unit/
	 exists test/fixtures/
 create app/models/user.rb
	 create test/unit/user_test.rb
	 create test/fixtures/users.yml

Open the generated file app/models/user.rb and edit it to look like this:

	class User < ActiveRecord::Base
	 validates_uniqueness_of :username
	 validates_confirmation_of :password, :on => :create
	 validates_length_of :password, :within => 5..40

	 # If a user matching the credentials is found, returns the User object.
	 # If no matching user is found, returns nil.
	 def self.authenticate(user_info)
	 find_by_username_and_password(user_info[:username],
	 user_info[:password])
	 end
	end

Now youve got a User class that represents a user account, and a way of validating a username and password against the one stored in the database.

Discussion

The simple User model given in the Solution defines a method for doing username/password validation, and some validation rules that impose limitations on the data to be stored in the users table. These validation rules tell User to:

  • Ensure that each username is unique. No two users can have the same username.
  • Ensure that, whenever the password attribute is being set, the password_confirmation attribute has the same value.
  • Ensure that the value of the password attribute is between 5 and 40 characters long.

Now lets create a controller for this model. Itll have a login action to display the login page, a process_login action to check the username and password, and a logout action to deauthenticate a logged-in session. So that the user accounts will actually do something, well also add a my_account action:

	$ ./script/generate controller user login process_login logout my_account
	 exists app/controllers/
	 exists app/helpers/
	 create app/views/user
	 exists test/functional/
	 create app/controllers/user_controller.rb
	 create test/functional/user_controller_test.rb
	 create app/helpers/user_helper.rb
	 create app/views/user/ 
login.rhtml
	 create app/views/user/process_login.rhtml
	 create app/views/user/logout.rhtml

Edit app/controllers/user_controller.rb to define the three actions:

	class UserController < ApplicationController
	 def login
	 @user = User.new
	 @user.username = params[:username]
	 end
	
	 def process_login
	 if user = User.authenticate(params[:user])
	 session[:id] = user.id # Remember the users id during this session
	 redirect_to session[:return_to] || /
	 else
	 flash[:error] = Invalid login.
	 redirect_to :action => login, :username => params[:user][:username]
	 end
	 end

	 def logout
	 reset_session
	 flash[:message] = Logged out.
	 redirect_to :action => login
	 end

	 def my_account
	 end
	end

Now for the views. The process_login and logout actions just redirect to other actions, so we only need views for login and my_account. Heres a view for login:

	
	<% if @flash[:message] %><%= @flash[:message] %><% end %>
	<% if @flash[:error] %><%= @flash[:error] %><% end %>

	<%= form_tag :action => process_login %>
	 Username: <%= text_field "user", "username" %>

	 Password: <%= password_field "user", "password" %>

	 <%= submit_tag %>
	<%= end_form_tag %>

The @flash instance variable is a hashlike object used to store temporary messages for the user between actions. When the logout action sets flash[:message] and redirects to login, or process_login sets flash[:error] and redirects to login, the results are available to the view of the login action. Then they get cleared out.

Heres a very simple view for my_account:

	
	

Account Info

Your username is <%= User.find(session[:id]).username %>


Create an entry in the users table, start the server, and youll find that you can log in from http://localhost:3000/user/login , and view your account information from http://localhost:3000/user/my_account.

	$ ./script/runner User.create(:username => "johndoe", 
	 :password => "changeme")

Theres just one missing piece: you can visit the my_account action even if you e not logged in. We don have a way to close off an action to unauthenticated users. Add the following code to your app/controllers/application.rb file:

	class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base
	 before_filter :set_user

	protected
	 def set_user
	 @user = User.find(session[:id]) if @user.nil? && session[:id]
	 end

	 def login_required
	 return true if @user
	 access_denied
	 return false
	 end

	 def access_denied
	 session[:return_to] = request.request_uri
	 flash[:error] = Oops. You need to login before you can view that page.
	 redirect_to :controller => user, :action => login
	 end
	end

This code defines two filters, set_user and login_required, which you can apply to actions or controllers. The set_user filter is run on every action (because we pass it into before_filter in ApplicationController, the superclass of all our controllers). The set_user method sets the instance variable @user if the user is logged in. Now information about the logged-in user (if any) is available throughout your application. Action methods and views can use this instance variable like any other. This is useful even for actions that don require login: for instance, your main layout view might display the name of the logged-in user (if any) on every page.

You can prohibit unauthenticated users from using a specific action or controller by passing the symbol for the login_required method into before_filter. Heres how to protect the my_account action defined in app/controllers/user_controller.rb:

	class UserController < ApplicationController
	 before_filter :login_required, :only => :my_account
	end

Now if you try to use the my_account action without being logged in, youll be redirected to the login page.

See Also

  • Recipe 13.14, "Validating Data with ActiveRecord"
  • Recipe 15.6, "Integrating a Database with Your Rails Application"
  • Recipe 15.9, "Storing Hashed User Passwords in the Database"
  • Recipe 15.11, "Setting and Retrieving Session Information"
  • Rather than doing this work yourself, you can install the login_generator gem and use its login generator: it will give your application a User model and a controller that implements a password-based authentication system; see http://wiki.rubyonrails.com/rails/pages/LoginGenerator; also see http://wiki.rubyonrails.com/rails/pages/AvailableGenerators for other generators (including the more sophisticated model_security_generator)


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