Telephony Service Solutions

Telephony services provide the services required for call processing, management, directory, database, application, and other features. The sections that follow cover the individual telephony service solutions in more detail.


The AVVID XML Layer (AXL) API provides a way for an experienced programmer to interact with and manipulate the CallManager database in ways not possible using CallManager Administration. Using an Extensible Markup Language (XML) Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) interface, the AXL SOAP API allows a programmer to access CallManager provisioning services using XML and exchange data in XML form, instead of using a binary library or DLL.

Brian Sedgley, a technical leader in the CallManager development group at Cisco System, runs the Alpha deployment for Cisco IP Communications on the Richardson, Texas campus. He regularly uses the AXL SOAP API to effect changes to the database that cannot be achieved through existing CallManager Administration functionality or to perform common changes in a faster way. The following list provides some examples of scripts from Brian's bag of AXL SOAP tricks:

  • A display prompt script that allows the system administrator to flash a message on the IP phone display of all or selected devices, such as "You will be logged out of this phone in 30 minutes to allow for device updates. We apologize for the inconvenience."
  • Phones that are currently logged in to extension mobility cannot receive line updates (such as audio source changes, updates to forwarding directives, and so on). A logout script allows Brian to logout all phones from extension mobility so that he can make the necessary changes.
  • Scripts for advanced bulk functions not currently possible in BAT. For example, the Richardson campus recently switched from five-digit extensions to eight-digits. An XML SOAP script made this dial plan change quick and painless.
  • A script that gathers a list of all registered devices and their dates and times of registration to aid with performance monitoring.
  • A script that allows the system administrator to check the message waiting indicator status of all phones.
  • A script that allows the system administrator to add phones to CallManager quickly and completely: configuring all aspects of the new phone such as device profile, user account and device association, extension mobility configuration, and more all at once.

The AXL API methods, known as requests, are performed using a combination of HTTP and SOAP. SOAP is an XML remote procedure call protocol. Users perform requests by sending XML data to the CallManager server. The server then returns the AXL response, which is also a SOAP message.

Programmers using the AXL SOAP API should have some experience with C++, Java, Perl, or equivalent language, as well as knowledge or experience in the following areas:

  • TCP/IP
  • HTTP
  • Socket programming
  • XML

A strong background with the XML Schema, which was used to define the AXL requests, responses, and errors, is also required. You can learn more about the XML Schema at the following link or search for "W3C XML schema":

Learn more about the AXL SOAP API on (login may be required) at the following links or search for "AXL SOAP API":

Bulk Administration Tool (BAT)

The Bulk Administration Tool (BAT), a web-based application, helps you perform bulk modifications to the CallManager database. With BAT, you can create templates and commaseparated value (CSV) files that can be reused for future bulk modifications. You can use BAT for database changes (including add, update, or delete, depending on the device type) for users, user device profiles, managers/assistants, most Cisco IP Phone models and some third-party phone models, speed dials, lines, IP phone services, forced authorization codes, client matter codes, CAPF configuration, resetting or restarting phones, Cisco VG200 gateways, FXS ports on Cisco Catalyst 6000 gateways, and combinations such as adding phones and users all at once. With BAT, you minimize the amount of time you spend manually adding, updating, or deleting users and devices in CallManager Administration. You can also use BAT to export selected information about specific phones or all phones in the CallManager database.

You can learn more about BAT in Chapter 6, "Manageability and Monitoring," or at the following location or search for "BAT":


The Cisco EGW 2200 Enterprise Gateway (EGW) is a media gateway controller that serves as a migration tool for optimizing the transition from existing Digital Private Network Signaling System (DPNSS) PBX enterprises to CallManager. The Cisco EGW also introduces Cisco Unity into existing DPNSS or QSIG PBX enterprises and supports toll bypass for QSIG and DPNSS PBXs. In these deployment scenarios, the Cisco EGW acts as an adjunct to CallManager and Unity to complete a connection to the PSTN.

The Cisco EGW targets the enterprise market and the Cisco PGW supports the worldwide service provider and large enterprise markets.

The Cisco PGW 2200 Softswitch is a flexible multiple-protocol media gateway controller that provides a bridge between the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and packet networks.

In conjunction with Cisco media gateways, the PGW 2200 Softswitch acts as a PSTN gateway that allows service providers to deploy and operate multiple packet-based network applications while maintaining a stable interconnect with the PSTN. At the heart of the product is its Universal Call Model, which allows the PGW 2200 to support interoperability between multiple legacy TDM interfaces and Internet protocols, including Signaling System 7 (SS7/C7), PRI, DPNSS, ITU QSIG, MGCP, SIP, and ITU H.323 protocols.

You can learn more about Cisco EGW/PGW at the following links or search for "Cisco EGW" or "Cisco PGW":

CDR Analysis and Reporting (CAR)

CDR Analysis and Reporting (CAR), formerly known as the Administrative Reporting Tool (ART), provides call and billing information; usage reporting; and performance information on the CallManager system via a web-based application, including end-to-end management information for voice quality and quality-of-service (QoS) metrics.

Calls are grouped into a voice-quality category based on the call information provided by call detail records (CDR), the diagnostic call management records (CMR), and QoS parameters you specify. Information that is not present in CDRs and CMRs, but that is required for various reports, is retrieved from LDAP or must be supplied by the CAR administrator. After this information is retrieved, it is stored in a CAR database. CAR can then use this information to generate billing, usage, forced authorization code, client matter code, traffic summary, voice quality, and other reports for the CallManager system.

Chapter 6 provides additional information about CAR. You can view the user guide for CAR at the following location (then follow these navigation instructions: choose your release > Serviceability > the serviceability guide for your release) or search for "CDR Analysis and Reporting":

Cisco CallManager Express

Cisco CallManager Express (CME), formerly called Cisco IOS Telephony Services, is an optional software feature in Cisco IOS-based routers designed for customers looking to deploy IP Communications solutions for the small/medium business or branch office. The solution supports 240 phones or fewer and provides customers with a choice of distributed call processing that works with CallManager at the central site. Whether offered through a service provider's managed services offering, positioned in a retail environment, or purchased directly by a corporation, CallManager Express offers many of the core telephony features required in the small office as well as many advanced features not available on traditional telephony solutions.

CallManager Express offers the following benefits:

  • Interoperability with CallManager 3.3(3) and higher (H.323 or SIP trunking)
  • A cost-effective IP communications solution for retail customers with numerous independent sites
  • A converged solution for voice, data, and IP communications services on a single Cisco Integrated Services Router platform
  • A risk-free protected initial investment in Cisco IP Communications for customers migrating to a CallManager and SRST deployment
  • Multiple voice mail integration options including Unity Express, Unity, or third-party system
  • Support for XML-based Cisco IP Phone services

You can learn more about CallManager Express at the following link or search for "CallManager Express":

Cisco CallManager Serviceability

CallManager Serviceability is bundled with CallManager Administration and provides alarm and trace configuration, as well a number of tools including Service Activation; a Control Center for starting and stopping services; QRT Viewer for retrieving problem reports logged by IP phone users; the Serviceability Reports Archive which, if configured, provides auto-generated alerts, call activity, and statistics reports; and real-time monitoring information about CallManager, Cisco IP Phones, gateways, applications, and infrastructure components within the IP Communications network. CallManager Serviceability monitors status and alarm information from these devices and can be configured to relay this information to service managers through SNMP and HTTP/XML via tools such as syslog and Event Viewer. CallManager Serviceability is automatically installed with CallManager and is accessible from the Application menu in CallManager Administration.

CallManager Serviceability provides alarm configuration and detailed alarm definitions as well as simplified tracing with the option to display trace results in easy-to-read XML format. The tradeoff with using an XML format is that less data is displayed. You can check version information for components installed in the CallManager system and monitor system and device status and alarms in real time using the Real-Time Monitoring Tool.


CallManager Serviceability provides access to the Q.931 Translator (Trace > Q931 Translator), which translates ISDN trace files into familiar Cisco IOS-equivalent messages, and also helps you troubleshoot problems with hardware that does not use the Q.931 protocol, such as the WS-X6624 analog FXS card, T1 CAS on the WS-X6608 card, and calls to and from an H.323 gateway. Although the Q.931 Translator allows you to quickly observe Q.931 and H.225 events, its functionality is somewhat limited. An adroit Cisco TAC engineer, Paul Giralt (read his book Troubleshooting Cisco IP Telephony [ISBN: 1-58705-075-7]) wrote a completely new version of Q.931 Translator. You can learn more about Q.931 Translator version 2.2.1 in Chapter 6.

Another useful tool is the TripleCombo, written by Cisco TAC engineer Murat Tiryakioglu, which can parse SCCP, SIP, MGCP, Q.931/H.225, and H.245 messages found in CCM traces. You can access the TripleCombo tool at the following link:

You can learn more about CallManager Serviceability in the online help (Help > Contents and Index).

Cisco CallManager User Options Web Page

The Cisco CallManager User Options web page allows users to configure various phone-related options. Some options are standard for all phone models, such as forwarding calls, changing the phone's locale, changing the locale for your device profile, changing password and PIN, while the availability of additional features depend on the phone model in use. For example, users of some Cisco IP Phone models such as 7970G, 7960G, and 7940G can also set speed dial numbers, change the message waiting indicator policy for the phone, change the phone's ring settings, manage Cisco IP Phone service subscriptions, configure Service URLs on their phone buttons, and configure Cisco Personal Address Book, as shown in Figure B-4.

Figure B-4. Cisco CallManager User Options Web Page for Cisco IP Phone 7960G

To have access to the Cisco CallManager User Options web page, users must be configured in the Global Directory of CallManager Administration. To use the features in the web page, users need to have a phone associated with them. The Cisco CallManager User Options web page is available by default, but you can turn off access to the various configuration items (such as speed dials, phone services, locales, and more) in the CCMUser Parameters area on the Enterprise Parameters Configuration page (System > Enterprise Parameters). Learn more about these parameters in the section "Cisco CallManager User Options Web Page" in Appendix A, "Feature List." Also, for security reasons, you can disable external call forwarding so that users cannot set a call forwarding directive for a number that is outside of the CallManager system.

Forwarding All Calls

Users can enter the number to which they want all calls forwarded on a per-line basis or to cancel an existing call forwarding directive, as well as set or cancel call forwarding using the CFwdAll softkey on their phone (affects primary line only). The number to which calls should be forwarded must be entered exactly as it would need to be dialed from the system, including any access number (such as a 9 for external calls or another number for internal calls). You can prevent users from forwarding calls to numbers outside the CallManager system for security reasons by allowing them to forward only to internal numbers.

Only system administrators can set Call Forward Busy and Call Forward No Answer directives using CallManager Administration. For secondary lines on an IP phone, CallManager Administration provides the only means to configure call forward destinations.

Configuring Speed Dials/Abbreviated Dialing

Users can enter the speed dial number and display text for each line/feature button assigned to their phone. The phone's template determines the number of line/feature buttons available. Users of Cisco IP Phone model 7910 can enter the speed dial number and then print a button template that displays the text for each line and feature button.

The lower half of the speed dial page allows users to specify abbreviated dialing numbers. These function similarly to speed dial entries except that while on-hook, users dial an index number associated with a speed dial number and then press the AbbrDial softkey. The phone accesses a line and speed dials the number associated with the abbreviated dialing index number that the user entered. Chapter 3 covers abbreviated dialing in more detail.

Configuring IP Phone Services

Users can subscribe to a list of available services, see a list of services to which they are subscribed, and unsubscribe from services. Services can be custom-configured by your company; see Chapter 3 and the section "Cisco IP Phone Productivity Services (by XML API)" in Appendix A for more information. After the user subscribes to the services, the user can press the services button on his or her phone to access the subscribed services, or access the service from a line/feature button that has had the service assigned via the Service URL feature.

Configuring Service URLs

Service URLs allow users to assign an IP phone service to a line/feature button, providing one-touch access to any IP phone XML service available on the system. For users to have access to Service URLs, you must configure Service URL on buttons on the button template (Device > Device Settings > Phone Button Template).

Configuring the Cisco Personal Address Book

Cisco Personal Address Book allows users to create a personal address book that can be accessed from the Cisco CallManager User Options web page or from some Cisco IP Phone models, such as the 7960G or 7940G. A Synchronization utility enables users to import contacts from Microsoft Outlook or Outlook Express directly into the Cisco Personal Address Book. Two services, Personal Address Book and Personal Fast Dials, enable users to access the information from their phone.

Changing the Message Waiting Indicator Policy

Users can choose the behavior of the message waiting lamp on their phone's handsets. A number of options are available, including not lighting the lamp at all.

Changing the Ring Settings

Users can choose the behavior of the phone when a new call arrives for both idle and in-use states. A number of options are available, including ringing, flashing, beeping, and not ringing or lighting the lamp at all.

Changing the Phone Locale

Users can choose the user locale for their phones, which determines the language on the phone's display. Users can choose from the locales that you have installed.

Changing the Device Profile Locale

Users can choose the user locale for their device profile, which means that phones to which they log on will display the specified locale. The profile also determines what language the Cisco CallManager User Options web page displays in. Users can choose from the locales that you have installed.

Changing the Password

Users can update the password they use to access IP phone services and the Cisco CallManager User Options web page. Passwords must be a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 20 alphanumeric characters (no spaces or quote marks).

Changing the PIN

Users can update their personal identification number (PIN), which is used to access extension mobility. PINs must be a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 20 numerals.

Viewing the User Guide for the Phone

Users can click the link to View the User Guide for your phone and the phone's user guide will display in a new browser window.

Cisco Messaging Interface (CMI)

Cisco Messaging Interface enables you to use an external voice mail system with CallManager. The voice mail system must meet the following requirements:

  • Have a simplified message desk interface (SMDI) accessible with an EIA/TIA-232 cable and an available serial port
  • Use analog ports or digital T1/E1 ports with CAS or PRI protocols for connecting voice lines

You also need a Cisco Catalyst 6000 24-port FXS gateway, Cisco VG248 gateway, Cisco Catalyst 6000 8-port T1 or E1 gateway, or any MGCP-controlled IOS gateway installed and configured to interface with the voice mail system.

The SMDI-compliant voice mail system is connected to CallManager in two ways:

  • Using a standard serial connection to CallManager
  • Using plain old telephone service (POTS) line connections to a Cisco Catalyst 6000 24-port FXS gateway, Cisco VG248 gateway, Cisco Catalyst 6000 8-port T1 or E1 gateway, or any MGCP-controlled IOS gateway

You can learn more about CMI in the CallManager documentation at the following link (follow these navigation instructions: choose your release > System Administration and Features and Services > choose the guide for your release > Cisco CallManager System Guide):

LDAP Support

CallManager uses an LDAP directory to store authentication and authorization information about telephony application users as well as phone numbers and user information such as first name, last name, department number, manager's name, and so on. Authentication establishes a user's right to access the system; authorization identifies the telephony resources that a user is permitted to use, such as a specific telephone extension.

The CallManager LDAP directory infrastructure supports Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) connections, allowing applications to securely transmit data/information between CallManager and the LDAP directory server.

You can integrate CallManager with an external LDAP directory by running the Cisco Customer Directory Configuration Plugin (Application > Install Plugins). This plug-in serves the following purposes:

  • Extends the corporate directory schema to accommodate the application-specific objects and attributes
  • Populates the "Cisco" subtree with the configuration objects that CallManager needs
  • Configures CallManager to use the corporate directory and disables the embedded directory
  • Allows you to configure LDAP over SSL. If configured, the SSL port number and the path to the server certificate gets requested each time data is passed to and from the directory

You can learn more about LDAP support in the Cisco IP Communications system in the CallManager Administration Guide at the following link:

Real-Time Monitoring Tool (RTMT)

The Real-Time Monitoring Tool (RTMT), formerly known as the Admin Serviceability Tool (AST), provides real-time information about your CallManager system for management and monitoring purposes. As of CallManager release 4.0, RTMT is a separate application from CallManager Serviceability, a move that offers greater speed and enhanced performance. After you install the Cisco CallManager Serviceability Real-Time Monitoring Tool plug-in (Application > Install Plugins), you access RTMT from your desktop.

Like Microsoft Performance, RTMT uses performance objects and counters to allow you to monitor and troubleshoot the enterprise IP telephony system. RTMT also provides alerting capability so that you can be advised with server messages or e-mails when specified conditions occur.

You can learn more about RTMT in Chapter 6, as well as at the following link (then click on your CallManager release > Serviceability > the serviceability guide for your release), or search for "CallManager Serviceability RTMT":

Tool for Auto-Registered Phones Support (TAPS)

The Tool for Auto-Registered Phones Support (TAPS) is a plug-in application (Application > Install Plugins) that enables you or users to automatically download a predefined user profile to a phone simply by plugging the phone into the network and dialing into a predefined TAPS directory number. TAPS can be used to update auto-registered phones with existing configurations, or to update auto-registered phones that received dummy Media Access Control (MAC) addresses when they were added to the CallManager database using BAT. TAPS requires that auto-registration be enabled in CallManager Administration (System > Cisco CallManager). TAPS can be used in conjunction with a Cisco Customer Response Solutions (CRS) server; TAPS requires the Cisco IP IVR application that runs on the Cisco CRS server for the user interface and prompts. Alternatively, for a four-port solution, TAPS can be used with Extended Services which you can download from

Using BAT, you bulk-add phones using dummy MAC addresses which saves you the labor of manually entering valid MAC addresses for each phone in the bulk operation. You can then use TAPS to update the dummy MAC address automatically in the CallManager database with the phone's actual MAC address. After the phones with dummy MAC addresses have been added to the CallManager database using BAT, either you or the phone's end user can plug the phone into the data port, apply power, wait for the phone to auto-register with CallManager, and dial the TAPS directory number to re-initialize the IP phone. TAPS provides voice prompts to walk the user through the short initialization process.

TAPS provides a secure feature that prevents important directory numbers from being overwritten. For security reasons, you should disable auto-registration and stop the TAPS service when TAPS is no longer needed.

You can learn more about TAPS by searching for "TAPS."

Cisco CallManager Architecture

Call Routing

Station Devices

Trunk Devices

Media Processing

Manageability and Monitoring

Call Detail Records

Appendix A. Feature List

Appendix B. Cisco Integrated Solutions

Appendix C. Protocol Details


Cisco CallManager Fundamentals
Cisco CallManager Fundamentals (2nd Edition)
ISBN: 1587051923
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 141 © 2008-2020.
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