.NODE

Configuring Basic NAT Functionality

Problem

You want to set up Network Address Translation on your router.

Solution

In the simplest NAT configuration, all of your internal devices use the same external global address as the router's external interface:

Router#configure terminal
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
Router(config)#access-list 15 permit 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255
Router(config)#ip nat inside source list 15 interface FastEthernet0/0 overload
Router(config)#interface FastEthernet0/2
Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
Router(config-if)#ip nat inside
Router(config-if)#exit
Router(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1
Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0
Router(config-if)#ip nat inside
Router(config-if)#exit
Router(config)#interface Ethernet0/0
Router(config-if)#ip address 172.16.1.5 255.255.255.252
Router(config-if)#ip nat outside
Router(config-if)#exit
Router(config)#end
Router#

 

Discussion

In this example, the router will rewrite that address of all of the internal devices whose IP addresses are in the range 192.168.0.0/16. When these internal devices connect to devices on the outside of the network, they will all appear to have the same source address as the external interface of the router, 172.16.1.5.

This example actually includes two internal interfaces and one external. You designate the internal interfaces with the ip nat inside command. You can have as many inside interfaces as you like:

Router(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1
Router(config-if)#ip nat inside

You also need to designate at least one outside interface using the command ip nat outside. There can be several outside interfaces, but this can be very difficult to control, so it is usually not recommended:

Router(config-if)#interface Ethernet0/0
Router(config-if)#ip nat outside

You configure the actual translation action with the line:

Router(config)#ip nat inside source list 15 interface FastEthernet0/0 overload

This tells the router to translate the source addresses of any internal devices that match access-list number 15. The router will translate the source addresses of all of these devices to the address that is configured on the interface FastEthernet0/0, which is the outside interface.

The overload keyword is actually assumed here, so if you leave it off, the router will automatically put it in. This option tells the router that many internal devices can use the same global address simultaneously. Since the router itself uses this address, if even a single internal address translates to this address, it is already overloaded. We will explain this option in more detail in Recipe 21.2.

To help explain what the access-list on this command does, we will change it so that it includes every address in the range except one:

Router(config)#access-list 15 deny 192.168.1.101
Router(config)#access-list 15 permit 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255

Now if you make a connection from the excluded address, 192.168.1.101, the only difference is that the router will not rewrite this internal address. Instead, this address will appear unchanged on the outside.

NAT can be quite confusing because people usually think that there is some firewall function associated with it. There is not. If you exclude one device from your NAT access-list, as we just discussed, anybody on the outside of the network will be able to connect to this internal device by its real address. But there is nothing to prevent an inbound packet from reaching a particular internal device if the person on the outside knows the real internal address and can route to it. Further, NAT by itself doesn't do any firewall functions, such as UDP or TCP port filtering.


Router Configuration and File Management

Router Management

User Access and Privilege Levels

TACACS+

IP Routing

RIP

EIGRP

OSPF

BGP

Frame Relay

Handling Queuing and Congestion

Tunnels and VPNs

Dial Backup

NTP and Time

DLSw

Router Interfaces and Media

Simple Network Management Protocol

Logging

Access-Lists

DHCP

NAT

First Hop Redundancy Protocols

IP Multicast

IP Mobility

IPv6

MPLS

Security

Appendix 1. External Software Packages

Appendix 2. IP Precedence, TOS, and DSCP Classifications

Index

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Cisco IOS Cookbook
Cisco IOS Cookbook (Cookbooks (OReilly))
ISBN: 0596527225
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 505
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