Security and the Stack

Apply Your Knowledge

The best way to understand packet structure is to use a packet analyzer. One good choice is Packetyzer, www.packetyzer.com. This Windows-based packet sniffer is based on Ethereal, is free, and features an easy-to-use GUI interface.

Exercises

2.1. Install a Sniffer and Perform Packet Captures

In this exercise, you will walk through the steps needed to install and use a packet analyzer. You will configure the packet analyzer to capture traffic in promiscuous mode and will examine the structure of TCP/IP traffic.

Estimated Time: 30 minutes.

  1. Go to the Packetyzer website located at www.packetyzer.com and download the Packetyzer application.
  2. Install the Packetyzer application along with Winpcap, if required. You might be asked to reboot the computer.
  3. Take a few minutes to review the Packetyzer user guide. This PDF can be found in the folder that you installed Packetyzer into.
  4. Start Packetyzer; you will be presented with a screen requesting that you configure the capture options as shown in Figure 2.11.

    Figure 2.11. Capture settings.

    Exam Alert

    If you have problems loading or using Winpcap, an alternative to using this sniffer would be to use Ethereal that was compiled by www.packetstuff.com. The version from packetstuff.com does not require you to install the Winpcap library.

     
  5. With the capture settings configured, you will be ready to start a packet capture. Select Session, Start Capture. You will now begin to capture traffic.
  6. Open a command prompt and type ping www.yahoo.com.
  7. Return to Packetyzer and stop the capture by choosing Session, Stop Capture.
  8. As shown in Figure 2.12, Packetyzer has three screens. The top section or screen is known as the summary section. It contains a quick one-line description of the frame. The middle screen is considered the detail screen. It contains a detailed interpretation of the frame. The bottom most screen is the hexadecimal screen. It contains a hex dump of the individual frame, and to the right you will see readable information. Usernames, passwords, or other cleartext will be readable here.

    Figure 2.12. View capture.

  9. Note the buttons for moving within frames or for selecting a different area of a packet. Spend some time becoming familiar with moving between frames and learning how to move about the display. You can also shrink or enlarge a specific frame by dragging the breakpoints between screens.
  10. If you captured any TCP traffic during the capture, right-click on one of the frames shown in the summary section and choose Follow TCP Flow. You will see a screen similar to the one shown in Figure 2.13.
  11. If you examine Figure 2.13 closely, you can see the four steps of the TCP shutdown. See if you can identify the proper flag sequence.

Figure 2.13. TCP flow.

 

2.2. List the Protocols, Applications, and Services Found at Each Layer of the Stack

In this exercise, you will list the various layers, the protocols that function at each layer, and which attacks they are vulnerable to.

Estimated Time: 30 minutes.

  1. Using the information found in the Chapter, complete the following table.

    Layer

    Layer Responsibility

    Protocol or Ports

    Potential Attacks

    Application

         
           
           

    Host-to-host

         
           
           

    Internet

         
           
           

    Network Access

         
           
           
     
  2. Once you complete the table, compare it to the following.

    Layer

    Layer Responsibility

    Protocol or Ports

    Potential Attacks

    Application

    Communication with applications

    FTP, SNMP, Telnet, HTTP, SMTP, DNS, SSH

    Password capture, spoofing, DNS poisoning, enumeration

    Host-to-host

    Connection and connectionless communciation

    TCP and UDP

    DoS, Session hijacking, scanning

    Internet

    Deliver of data, error and diagnostics, address resolution

    IP, ICMP, and ARP

    Routing attacks, fragmentation attacks, diagnostics, man-in-the-middle attacks

    Network access

    Physical layer delivery

    PPP, SLIP

    MAC address spoofing

     

Exam Questions

1.

When referring to the domain name service, what is a zone?

A. A collection of domains.

B. It describes the zone namespace.

C. A collection of resource records.

D. A collection of alias records.

2.

You have gone to an organization's website to gather information, such as employee names, email addresses, and phone numbers. Which step of the hacker's methodology does this correspond to?

A. Scanning and enumeration

B. Reconnaissance

C. Fingerprinting

D. Gaining access

3.

Kevin and his friends are going through a local IT firm's garbage. Which of the following best describes this activity?

A. Reconnaissance

B. Intelligence gathering

C. Social engineering

D. Dumpster diving

   
4.

You've just captured some packets that you believe to be forged. They all begin with the following hex values when viewed with an analyzer: Ethernet II = 00 00 9C C6 4C 4F FF FF FF FF FF FF 08 00. Which of the following statements is true?

A. The Ethernet II frame information indicates that someone is performing ARP spoofing.

B. The packets must be invalid, as they indicate that they are from a broadcast MAC address.

C. The destination address is set to broadcast.

D. The packets must be invalid, as they indicate that they are from a multicast MAC address.

5.

The Nimda worm took advantage of this application to quickly move data from outside the firewall to a targeted web server.

A. Telnet

B. FTP

C. TFTP

D. Apache

6.

This application uses clear text community strings that default to public and private. Which of the following represents the correct port and protocol?

A. UDP 69

B. TCP 161

C. TCP 69

D. UDP 161

7.

Which of the following attacks is considered a type of overlapping fragment attack, and what protocol does it alter?

A. Smurf and ICMP

B. Teardrop and IP

C. Ping of death and ICMP

D. LAND and TCP

   
8.

What flags are set on the second step of the three-way TCP handshake?

A. SYN

B. SYN ACK

C. ACK

D. ACK PSH

9.

What flag sequence is set in a TCP packet to terminate an abnormal transmission?

A. RST FIN

B. FIN PSH

C. FIN

D. RST

10.

Which rule means that all ports and applications are turned off, and only the minimum number of applications and services are turned on that are needed to accomplish the organization's goals?

A. Deny all

B. Principle of least privilege

C. Access Control List

D. Defense in depth

11.

During a packet capture, you have found several packets with the same IPID. You believe these packets to be fragmented. One of the packets has an offset value of 5dc hex, and the more bit is off. With this information, which of the following statements is true?

A. This might be any fragmented packet except the first in the series.

B. This might be any fragmented packet except the last in the series.

C. This is the first fragment.

D. This is the last fragment.

12.

You have just started using traceroute and were told that it can use ICMP time exceeded messages to determine the route a packet takes. Which of the following ICMP type codes map to time exceeded?

A. Type 3

B. Type 5

C. Type 11

D. Type 13

   
13.

Which layer of the OSI model could ARP poisoning occur?

A. Network

B. Data Link

C. Session

D. Transport

14.

Which type of attack sends fake entries to a DNS server to corrupt the information stored there?

A. DNS DoS

B. DNS cache poisoning

C. DNS pharming

D. DNS zone transfer

15.

In which layer of the OSI model do SYN attacks occur?

A. Network

B. Data Link

C. Physical

D. Transport

16.

Blackhat Bob would like to redirect his coworker's traffic to his computer so that he can monitor his activities on the Internet. The local area network is fully switched and sets behind a NATing router and a firewall. Which of the following techniques would work best?

A. ARP spoofing.

B. Blackhat Bob should configure his MAC address to be the same as the coworker he would like to monitor.

C. DNS spoofing.

D. Blackhat Bob should configure his IP address to be the same as the default gateway.

17.

Which DNS record gives information about the zone, such as administrator contact, and so on?

A. CNAME

B. MX record

C. A record

D. Start of Authority

   
18.

Setting which IP option allows hackers the ability to specify the path an IP packet would take?

A. Routing

B. Source routing

C. RIP routing

D. Traceroute

19.

You have captured packets that you believe have had the source address changed to a private address. Which of the following is a private address?

A. 176.12.9.3

B. 12.27.3.1

C. 192.168.14.8

D. 127.0.0.1

20.

Which layer of the OSI model is responsible for encryption?

A. Application

B. Presentation

C. Session

D. Transport

Answers to Exam Questions

A1:

1. C. Each zone is a collection of structured resource records. Answer A is incorrect, as it is not a collection of domains; zones are a collection of resource records that can include an SOA record, A record, CNAME record, NS record, PTR record, and the MX record. Answer B is incorrect because it does not describe a zone namespace; that is the purpose of the SOA record. Answer D is incorrect, as a collection of aliases is a CNAME.

A2:

2. B. Reconnaissance includes the act of reviewing an organization's website to gather as much information as possible. Answer A is incorrect because scanning and enumeration is not a passive activity. Answer C is incorrect because fingerprinting is performed to identify a systems OS. Answer D is incorrect, as gaining access is the equivalent of breaking and entering.

A3:

3. D. Dumpster diving is the act of going through someone's trash. All other answers are incorrect because they do not describe dumpster diving. Reconnaissance is information gathering; intelligence gathering is another name for reconnaissance; and social engineering is the art of manipulating people.

   
A4:

4. B. The format for an Ethernet II frame is target MAC address, source MAC address, and type field. The second six bytes equal FF FF FF FF FF FF, which indicates that they are from a broadcast address. Answer A is incorrect, as the information shown does not indicate an ARP packet. ARP packets can be identified by the hex value 08 06 in the type field. Answer C is incorrect because the destination is not set to a broadcast address. Answer D is incorrect, as the packet is not from a multicast address.

A5:

5. C. TFTP was used by the Nimda worm to move the infected file to the victim's web server, admin.dll. Answer A is incorrect, as Nimda does not use Telnet. Answer B is incorrect, as Nimda did not use FTP. Answer D is incorrect because Nimda targeted IIS, not Apache.

A6:

6. D. SNMP is UDP based and uses port two separate portsone of which is 161. It is vulnerable, as it can send the community strings in clear text. Answer A is incorrect because port 69 is TFTP. Answer B is incorrect, as SNMP is not TCP based. Answer C is incorrect, as TCP 69 is not used for SNMP.

A7:

7. B. A teardrop attack is considered a type of overlapping fragment attack. It targets the IP header. Answer B is incorrect, as Smurf alters an ICMP ping packet. Answer C is incorrect, as the ping of death is also an ICMP attack. Answer D is incorrect because a LAND attack is not an overlapping fragment attack; it alters the port numbers.

A8:

8. B. The second step of the three-step handshake sets the SYN ACK flags. Answer A is incorrect because the SYN flag is set on the first step. Answer C is incorrect, as the ACK flag occurs to acknowledge data. Answer D is incorrect, as the ACK PSH flags are not set on the second step of the handshake.

A9:

9. D. RST is used to terminate a session that is abnormal or is non-responsive. Answer A is incorrect, as the default flag sequence to terminate is not RST FIN. Answer B is incorrect because FIN PSH is not used to terminate an abnormal session. Answer C is incorrect, as FIN is used to shut down a normal session.

A10:

10. A. Deny all means that by default all ports and services are turned off; then only when a service or application is needed to accomplish a legitimate function of the organization is the service turned on. Answer B is incorrect, as the principle of least privilege means that you give employees only the minimum services needed to perform a task. Answer C is incorrect because an access control list is used for stateless inspection and can be used to block or allow approved services. Answer D is incorrect because defense in depth is the design of one security mechanism layered on top of another.

A11:

11. D. The last fragmented packet will have the more bit set to 0 to indicate that no further packets will follow. Answer A is incorrect as it must be the last packet in the series if the more bit is set to 0. Answer B is incorrect as the more bit indicates that it must be the last packet. Answer C is incorrect as it cannot be the first packet with the more bit set to 0.

A12:

12. C. ICMP type 11 is the correct code for time exceeded. All other answers are incorrect, as type 3 is for destination unreachable, type 5 is for redirects, and type 13 is for timestamp requests.

   
A13:

13. B. ARP poisoning occurs at the Data Link layer. Answer A is incorrect because the Network layer is associated with IP addresses. Answer C is incorrect, as the Session layer is in charge of session management. Answer D is incorrect because the Transport layer is associated with TCP and UDP.

A14:

14. B. DNS cache poisoning is a technique that tricks your DNS server into believing it has received authentic information when in reality, it has been deceived. Answer A is incorrect, as a DoS attack's primary goal is to disrupt service. Answer C is incorrect because DNS pharming is used to redirect users to an incorrect DNS server. Answer D is incorrect, as an illegal zone transfer is an attempt to steal the zone records, not poison them.

A15:

15. D. The Transport layer is the correct answer. TCP can be the target for SYN attacks, which are a form of DoS. Answer A is incorrect because the Network layer is not associated with TCP. Answer B is incorrect, as the Data Link layer is responsible for frames. Answer C is incorrect, as the Physical layer is the physical media on which the bits or bytes are transported.

A16:

16. A. ARP spoofing is used to redirect traffic on a switched network. Answer B is incorrect because setting this MAC address to be the same as the coworker would not be effective. Answer C is incorrect, as DNS spoofing would not help in this situation because DNS resolves FQDNs to Unknown IP addresses. Answer D is incorrect, as ARP poisoning requires a hacker to set his MAC address to be the same as the default gateway, not his IP address.

A17:

17. D. The Start of Authority record gives information about the zone, such as the administrator contact. Answer A is incorrect, as CNAME is an alias. Answer B is incorrect, as MX records are associated with mail server addresses, and answer C is incorrect because an A record contains IP addresses and names of specific hosts.

A18:

18. B. Source routing was designed to allow individuals the ability to specify the route that a packet should take through a network or to allow users to bypass network problems or congestion. Answer A is incorrect, as routing is the normal process of moving packets from node to node. Answer C is incorrect because RIP is a routing protocol. Answer D is incorrect because traceroute is the operation of sending trace packets to determine node information and to trace the route of UDP packets for the local host to a remote host. Normally, traceroute displays the time and location of the route taken to reach its destination computer.

A19:

19. C. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of the IP address space for private networks: Class A network IP address range = 10.0.0.010.255.255.255, Class B network IP address range = 172.31.0.0172.31.255.255, and Class C network IP address range = 192.168.255.0192.168.255.255. Check out RFC 1918 to learn more about private addressing. Answers A, B, and D are incorrect, as they do not fall within the ranges shown here.

A20:

20. B. The presentation layer is responsible for encryption. Answer A is incorrect because the Application layer is responsible for program support. Programs are typically accessed by port number. Answer C is incorrect, as the Session layer handles such functions as the TCP startup and TCP shutdown. Answer D is incorrect, as the Transport layer is the home of TCP and UDP, which are connection and connectionless protocols.

Suggested Reading and Resources

http://librenix.com/?inode=4569Understanding DNS attacks

www.stamey.nu/DNS/DNSTerms.aspUnderstanding DNS

www.novell.com/connectionmagazine/2000/03/hand30.pdfUnderstanding the TCP handshake

http://www.isecom.org/projects/osstmm.shtmlOSSTMM

www.openbsd.org/faq/pf/filter.html#tcpflagsTCP flags and packet filtering

www.techexams.net/technotes/securityplus/attacks-DDOS.shtmlHow teardrop and other DoS attacks work

http://netsecurity.about.com/cs/hackertools/a/aa121403.htmUsing a packet sniffer

www.tildefrugal.net/tech/arp.phpHow ARP works

www.stamey.nu/DNS/DNSHowItWorks.aspHow DNS works

www.chebucto.ns.ca/~rakerman/trojan-port-table.htmlDangerous ports used for Trojan and hacking software

www.insecure.org/nmap/hobbit.ftpbounce.txtFTP bounce attack

www.hackinthebox.org/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=7944&mode=thread&order=0&thold=0Using MAC addresses to enumerate and hack computer systems

Footprinting and Scanning

Part I: Exam Preparation

The Business Aspects of Penetration Testing

The Technical Foundations of Hacking

Footprinting and Scanning

Enumeration and System Hacking

Linux and Automated Security Assessment Tools

Trojans and Backdoors

Sniffers, Session Hijacking, and Denial of Service

Web Server Hacking, Web Applications, and Database Attacks

Wireless Technologies, Security, and Attacks

IDS, Firewalls, and Honeypots

Buffer Overflows, Viruses, and Worms

Cryptographic Attacks and Defenses

Physical Security and Social Engineering

Part II: Final Review

Part III: Appendixes

Appendix A. Using the ExamGear Special Edition Software



Certified Ethical Hacker Exam Prep
Certified Ethical Hacker Exam Prep
ISBN: 0789735318
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2007
Pages: 247
Authors: Michael Gregg

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