MySQL's built-in export capabilities don't suffice.
Write your own utilities.
When existing software doesn't do what you want, you can write your own programs to export data. This section shows how to write a Perl script, mysql_to_text.pl, that executes an arbitrary query and exports it in the format you specify. It writes output to the client host and can include a row of column labels (neither of which SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE can do). It produces multiple output formats more easily than by using mysql with a postprocessor, and it writes to the client host, unlike mysqldump, which can write only SQL-format output to the client.
mysql_to_text.pl is based on the Text::CSV_XS module, which you'll need to obtain if it's not installed on your system. Once it's installed, you can read the documentation like so:
% perldoc Text::CSV_XS
This module is convenient because all you have to do is provide an array of column values, and it will package them up into a properly formatted output line. This makes it relatively trivial to convert query output to CSV format. But the real benefit of using the Text::CSV_XS module is that it's configurable; you can tell it what kind of delimiter and quote characters to use. This means that although the module produces CSV format by default, you can configure it to write a variety of output formats. For example, if you set the delimiter to tab and the quote character to undef, Text::CSV_XS generates tab-delimited output. We'll take advantage of that flexibility in this section for writing mysql_to_text.pl, and later in Recipe 10.19 to write a file-processing utility that converts files from one format to another.
mysql_to_text.pl accepts several command-line options. Some of these are for specifying MySQL connection parameters (such as --user, --password, and --host). You're already familiar with these, because they're used by the standard MySQL clients like mysql. The script also can obtain connection parameters from an option file, if you specify a [client] group in the file. The other options that mysql_to_text.pl accepts are as follows:
--execute= query, -e query
Execute query and export its output.
--table= tbl_name, -t tbl_name
Export the contents of the named table. This is equivalent to using --execute to specify a query value of SELECT * FROM tbl_name.
Write an initial row of column labels.
Set the column delimiter sequence to str. The option value may consist of one or more characters. The default is to use tabs.
Set the column value quote character to c. The default is to not quote anything.
Set the end-of-line sequence to str. The option value may consist of one or more characters. The default is to use linefeeds.
The defaults for the --delim, --quote, and --eol options correspond to those used by LOAD DATA and SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE.
The final argument on the command line should be the database name, unless it's implicit in the query. For example, these two commands are equivalent; each exports the passwd table in colon-delimited format into a file named tmp:
% mysql_to_text.pl --delim=":" --table=passwd cookbook > tmp % mysql_to_text.pl --delim=":" --table=cookbook.passwd > tmp
To generate CSV output with CRLF line terminators instead, use a command like this:
% mysql_to_text.pl --delim="," --quote=""" --eol=" " --table=cookbook.passwd > tmp
That's a general description of how you use mysql_to_text.pl. Now let's discuss how it works. The initial part of the mysql_to_text.pl script declares a few variables, then processes the command-line arguments, using option-processing techniques developed in Recipe 2.11. (As it happens, most of the code in the script actually is devoted to processing the command-line arguments and getting set up to run the query!)
#! /usr/bin/perl -w # mysql_to_text.pl - export MySQL query output in user-specified text format # Usage: mysql_to_text.pl [ options ] [db_name] > text_file use strict; use DBI; use Text::CSV_XS; use Getopt::Long; $Getopt::Long::ignorecase = 0; # options are case sensitive $Getopt::Long::bundling = 1; # allow short options to be bundled my $prog = "mysql_to_text.pl"; # ... construct usage message variable $usage (not shown) ... # Variables for command line options - all undefined initially # except for output structure, which is set to be tab-delimited, # linefeed-terminated. my $help; my ($host_name, $password, $port_num, $socket_name, $user_name, $db_name); my ($query, $tbl_name); my $labels; my $delim = " "; my $quote; my $eol = " "; GetOptions ( # =i means an integer argument is required after the option # =s means a string argument is required after the option # :s means a string argument is optional after the option "help" => $help, # print help message "host|h=s" => $host_name, # server host "password|p:s" => $password, # password "port|P=i" => $port_num, # port number "socket|S=s" => $socket_name, # socket name "user|u=s" => $user_name, # username "execute|e=s" => $query, # query to execute "table|t=s" => $tbl_name, # table to export "labels|l" => $labels, # generate row of column labels "delim=s" => $delim, # column delimiter "quote=s" => $quote, # column quoting character "eol=s" => $eol # end-of-line (record) delimiter ) or die "$usage "; die "$usage " if defined $help; $db_name = shift (@ARGV) if @ARGV; # One of --execute or --table must be specified, but not both die "You must specify a query or a table name $usage " if !defined ($query) && !defined ($tbl_name); die "You cannot specify both a query and a table name $usage " if defined ($query) && defined ($tbl_name); # If table name was given, convert it to a query that selects entire table $query = "SELECT * FROM $tbl_name" if defined ($tbl_name); # convert defined/undefined state into true/false $labels = defined ($labels); # interpret special chars in the file structure options $quote = interpret_option ($quote); $delim = interpret_option ($delim); $eol = interpret_option ($eol);
The interpret_option( ) function processes escape and hex sequences for the --delim, --quote, and --eol options. , , , and