Discovering Devices

Of course, theres only so much you can do with just the local device. Soon you e going to want to find out what other devices are out there. This is the purpose of the DiscoveryAgent class. There is one DiscoveryAgent per LocalDevice, and since theres exactly one LocalDevice, theres exactly one DiscoveryAgent. This is retrieved by the geTDiscoveryAgent( ) method in LocalDevice:

public DiscoveryAgent getDiscoveryAgent( )

For example:

DiscoveryAgent agent = LocalDevice.getLocalDevice().getDiscoveryAgent( );

The startInquiry( ) method scans the airwaves for discoverable remote devices:

public boolean startInquiry(int accessCode, DiscoveryListener listener)
 throws BluetoothStateException

This search can take about a minute. To avoid blocking and tying up the user interface or other important operations, this scan can run asynchronously. When the local device finds a remote device, it tells the DiscoveryListener passed as the second argument.

The first argument, accessCode, controls the type of the inquiry. It is either DiscoveryAgent.GIAC (General/Unlimited Inquiry Access Code) or DiscoveryAgent.LIAC (Limited Dedicated Inquiry Access Code). Most of the time, you should use DiscoveryAgent.GIAC. Some implementations do not support LIAC mode.

You can prematurely terminate an inquiry by passing the listener to the cancelInquiry( ) method:

public boolean cancelInquiry(DiscoveryListener listener)

The retrieveDevices( ) method returns a list of the Bluetooth devices the agent already knows about (that is, it does not find any newly added devices):

public RemoteDevice[] retrieveDevices(int option)

The option argument should be DiscoveryAgent.CACHED or DiscoveryAgent.PREKNOWN. Cached devices are those discovered in previous inquiries. Preknown devices are specially configured before the application starts up. If none of the requested devices exists, this method returns null. If any devices are preknown or cached, retrieving them is quite a bit faster than launching a new inquiry over the air.

The DiscoveryListener interface has four callback methods that are invoked to signal a device. It actually supports two kinds of searches, one for devices and one for services. Which methods are called back depends on what type of search it is.

The deviceDiscovered( ) method is called when the search uncovers a new device:

public void deviceDiscovered(RemoteDevice btDevice, DeviceClass cod)

When the agent has given up on finding new devices, it calls inquiryCompleted( ):

public void inquiryCompleted(int discoveryType)

The discoveryType argument indicates how the search completed. It is one of three constants: DiscoveryListener.INQUIRY_COMPLETED, DiscoveryListener.INQUIRY_TERMINATED, or DiscoveryListener.INQUIRY_ERROR.

The servicesDiscovered( ) method is called when the search uncovers one or more new services on a device:

public void servicesDiscovered(int transactionID, ServiceRecord[] serviceRecord)

The TRansactionID argument identifies the search that found the service. The service records provide details about what the device can do and how it operates.

When the agent has given up on finding new services, it calls serviceSearchCompleted( ):

public void serviceSearchCompleted(int transactionID, int responseCode)

This search has five possible responses:

  • DiscoveryListener.SERVICE_SEARCH_ERROR

However, a search started by startInquiry( ) won find any services just yet, so you can implement these methods as do-nothings if you e looking for devices. Once youve found a remote device, you can search it for services. Ill have more to say about that shortly.

Example 25-3 is a simple program that searches for and enumerates all the Bluetooth devices it can find. For each device, it prints the name; the address; the major, minor, and service classes; and the combined 3-byte class identifier, printed in both hexadecimal and binary. This information is useful when you e first trying to figure out how to talk to an undocumented device.

Example 25-3. Finding Bluetooth devices

import javax.bluetooth.*;
public class BluetoothSearch implements DiscoveryListener {
 private DiscoveryAgent agent;
 public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
 BluetoothSearch search = new BluetoothSearch( );
 search.agent = LocalDevice.getLocalDevice().getDiscoveryAgent( );
 search.agent.startInquiry(DiscoveryAgent.GIAC, search);
 public void deviceDiscovered(RemoteDevice device, DeviceClass type) {
 int major = type.getMajorDeviceClass( );
 int minor = type.getMinorDeviceClass( );
 int services = type.getServiceClasses( );
 int classIdentifier = major | minor | services;
 try {
 System.out.println("Found " + device.getFriendlyName(false)
 + " at " + device.getBluetoothAddress( ));
 catch (IOException ex) {
 System.out.println("Found unnamed device "
 + " at " + device.getBluetoothAddress( ));
 System.out.println(" Major class: 0x" + Integer.toHexString(major));
 System.out.println(" Minor class: 0x" + Integer.toHexString(minor));
 System.out.println(" Service classes: 0x" + Integer.toHexString(services));
 System.out.println(" Class identifier: 0x"
 + Integer.toHexString(classIdentifier));
 System.out.println(" Class identifier: "
 + Integer.toBinaryString(classIdentifier));
 public void inquiryCompleted(int discoveryType) {
 switch (discoveryType) {
 case DiscoveryListener.INQUIRY_TERMINATED:
 System.out.println("Search cancelled");
 case DiscoveryListener.INQUIRY_ERROR:
 System.out.println("Bluetooth error");
 case DiscoveryListener.INQUIRY_COMPLETED:
 System.out.println("Device search complete");;
 System.out.println("Unanticipated result: " + discoveryType);
 // This search is only looking for devices and won	 discover any services,
 // but we have to implement these methods to fulfill the interface
 public void servicesDiscovered(int transactionID, ServiceRecord[] record) {}
 public void serviceSearchCompleted(int transactionID, int arg1) {}

For this program to find a device, the device must be turned on, be in discoverable mode, and not already have been grabbed by the host operating system. Otherwise, you may not see it. Heres the output from running this on my PowerMac G5:

$ java -classpath .:avetanaBluetooth.jar BluetoothSearch
Found WACOM Pen Tablet at 0013C2000D23
Major class: 0x500
 Minor class: 0x80
 Service classes: 0x1
 Class identifier: 0x581
 Class identifier: 10110000001
Found elharos mouse at 000A95095A59
 Major class: 0x500
 Minor class: 0x80
 Service classes: 0x1
 Class identifier: 0x581
 Class identifier: 10110000001
Found Earthmate Blue Logger GPS at 00904B2A88D6
 Major class: 0x1f00
 Minor class: 0x0
 Service classes: 0x0
 Class identifier: 0x1f00
 Class identifier: 1111100000000
Found elharos keyboard at 000A953AFB0B
 Major class: 0x500
 Minor class: 0x40
 Service classes: 0x1
 Class identifier: 0x541
 Class identifier: 10101000001
Device search complete

From this we can see that this system has four devices in discoverable mode: a mouse, an Earthmate Blue Logger GPS unit, a WACOM tablet, and an unspecified keyboard. The keyboard and the mouse have the same major class but different minor classes. The graphics tablet and the mouse have the same major, minor, and service classes. The GPS unit has the uncategorized major class 0x1F00, since the Bluetooth SIG hasn gotten around to defining an appropriate major class for this sort of device.

Basic I/O

Introducing I/O

Output Streams

Input Streams

Data Sources

File Streams

Network Streams

Filter Streams

Filter Streams

Print Streams

Data Streams

Streams in Memory

Compressing Streams

JAR Archives

Cryptographic Streams

Object Serialization

New I/O



Nonblocking I/O

The File System

Working with Files

File Dialogs and Choosers


Character Sets and Unicode

Readers and Writers

Formatted I/O with java.text


The Java Communications API


The J2ME Generic Connection Framework


Character Sets

Java I/O
Java I/O
ISBN: 0596527500
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 244 © 2008-2020.
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