The operator Module

The operator module provides a "functional" interface to the standard operators in Python. The functions in this module can be used instead of some lambda constructs, when processing data with functions like map and filter. They are also quite popular among people who like to write obscure code, for obvious reasons. The operator module is demonstrated in Example 1-62.

Example 1-62. Using the operator Module

File: operator-example-1.py

import operator

sequence = 1, 2, 4

print "add", "=>", reduce(operator.add, sequence)
print "sub", "=>", reduce(operator.sub, sequence)
print "mul", "=>", reduce(operator.mul, sequence)
print "concat", "=>", operator.concat("spam", "egg")
print "repeat", "=>", operator.repeat("spam", 5)
print "getitem", "=>", operator.getitem(sequence, 2)
print "indexOf", "=>", operator.indexOf(sequence, 2)
print "sequenceIncludes", "=>", operator.sequenceIncludes(sequence, 3)

add => 7
sub => -5
mul => 8
concat => spamegg
repeat => spamspamspamspamspam

getitem => 4
indexOf => 1
sequenceIncludes => 0

Example 1-63 shows some operator functions that can be used to check object types.

Example 1-63. Using the operator Module for Type Checking

File: operator-example-2.py

import operator
import UserList

def dump(data):
 print type(data), "=>",
 if operator.isCallable(data):
 print "CALLABLE",
 if operator.isMappingType(data):
 print "MAPPING",
 if operator.isNumberType(data):
 print "NUMBER",
 if operator.isSequenceType(data):
 print "SEQUENCE",
dump([1, 2, 3])
dump((1, 2, 3))
dump({"a": 1})
dump(len) # function
dump(UserList) # module
dump(UserList.UserList) # class
dump(UserList.UserList()) # instance


Note that the operator module doesn't handle object instances in a normal fashion. Be careful when you use the isNumberType, isMappingType, and isSequenceType functions. It's easy to make your code less flexible than it has to be.

Also, note that a string sequence member (a character) is also a sequence. If you're writing a recursive function that uses isSequenceType to traverse an object tree, you better not pass it an ordinary string (or anything containing one).

Core Modules

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Threads and Processes

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Mail and News Message Processing

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Python Standard Library
Python Standard Library (Nutshell Handbooks) with
ISBN: 0596000960
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2000
Pages: 252
Authors: Fredrik Lundh
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