Article 422: Appliances

Table of contents:

Article 422 Appliances

I. General



This covers electric appliances used in any type of occupancy.


Other Articles

Article 430 applies to motor appliances and Article 440 applies to appliances with hermetic refrigerant motors.


Live Parts

No live parts can be normally exposed other than open resistance heating elements such as those in toasters.

II. Installation


Branch-Circuit Rating

Generally, the rating of the circuit must be at least that of the total rating of the appliance for an individual appliance branch circuit and in accordance with Section 422.62. Motor circuits not having a marked rating must be in accordance with Part II of Article 430. If the appliance is to be continuously loaded (not a motor), the branch circuit must be rated at least 125% of the appliance unless the branch-circuit device and assembly are rated for continuous loading at 100%, in which case the branch circuit cannot be less than 100% of the appliance. Branch circuits for household cooking appliances are to be rated as provided in Table 220.19. If the branch circuit supplies an appliance and other loads, use the provisions of Section 210.23.


Overcurrent Protection

Follow (a) through (g) below and Section 422.10

(A) Branch-Circuit Overcurrent Protection. Must be protected in accordance with Section 240.4. If a protective device rating is marked on an appliance, this rating must not be exceeded.

(B) Household-Type Appliance with Surface Heating Elements. If its demand is more than 60 A when calculated with Table 220.55, it must have its power supply subdivided with no circuit more than 50 A.

(C) Infrared Lamp Commercial and Industrial Heating Appliances. Cannot be greater than 50 A.

(D) Open-Coil or Exposed Sheathed-Coil Types of Surface Heating Elements in Commercial-Type Heating Appliances. Cannot be greater than 50 A.

(E) Single Nonmotor-Operated Appliance. The branch-circuit overcurrent device rating should not exceed the protective device rating noted on the unit. If no rating is ntoed, use 20 A or less if the unit rating is not more than 13.3 A and 150% or less of the unit rating if it is more than 13.3 A. If no standard overcurrent device rating exists at 150% of the appliance rating, then the next highest standard rating can be used.

(F) Electric Heating Appliances Employing Resistance-Type Heating Elements Rated More than 48 Amperes. Factory-installed overcurrent devices which must be used in this case are discussed in this paragraph.

(G) Motor-Operated Appliances. Overload protection for motor-operated appliances has to be as noted in Part III of Article 430. Hermetic refrigerant compressors must be as noted in Part VI of Article 440. When the appliance overcurrent devices required are separate from the appliance, then the device must be marked with information that can be used to make the selection with a minimum rating that can be used as specified in Sections 430.7 and 440.4.


Central Heating Equipment

Must be connected to an individual branch circuit except for fixed electric space heating equipment or permanently connected air conditioning equipment.


Storage-Type Water Heaters


Infrared Lamp Industrial Heating Appliances


Central Vacuum Outlet Assemblies


Flexible Cords

Specific types of cords are indicated for specific uses, with noted exceptions.


Protection of Combustible Material


Support of Ceiling-Suspended (Paddle) Fans

They must be supported independently of an outlet box. They can be supported by a listed outlet box or an outlet box assembly that is identified for that use and in accordance with 314.27(D).


Other Installation Methods


III. Disconnecting Means



There must be a disconnecting means to disconnect the ungrounded conductors from the appliance. If there is more than one source to the appliance, then the disconnecting means have to be grouped and identified.


Disconnection of Permanently Connected Appliances

If the device is not over 300 VA or 1/8 hp, the branch-circuit overcurrent device can be the disconnecting means. If the ratings are higher, the branch-circuit overcurrent device can be used as the disconnecting means only if it can be locked in the open position and is in sight of the user. The ability to lock must be permanently installed at the switch or circuit breaker. Refer to Section 422.34 for unit-switched appliances.


Disconnecting Means for Motor-Driven Appliances

In the case of a permanently installed motor-driven appliance that is larger than 1/8 hp, a switch or circuit breaker can be used if it is in sight of the appliance. It must then comply with Part X of Article 430.


Disconnection of Cord- and Plug-Connected Appliances

For these types of appliances an accessible separable connector or plug and receptacle can be used as the disconnecting means. Where it is not accessible a disconnecting means in accordance with Section 422.31 must be used. In the case of the household range, the plug and receptacle must be accessible from the front either directly or through removal of a drawer. The receptacle or connector must be rated at least the same as the appliances. Demand factors are permitted if authorized in other sections of the NEC®.


Unit Switch(es) as Disconnecting Means

A unit switch or switches that is part of the appliance can be considered the disconnecting means for the appliance if it has a position marked "off," disconnects all ungrounded conductors and other disconnecting means are installed as follows:

(A) In multifamily dwellings this other disconnecting means must be installed at least on the same floor that the appliance is installed. It can control other appliances and lamps.

(B) In two-family dwellings this other disconnecting means can be installed outside the dwelling unit and it can be a switch for the dwelling unit, such as in a panel in the basement.

(C) The service disconnect will fulfill this other requirement in a one-family dwelling.

(D) In all other occupancies, if readily accessible, the branch unit switch or circuit breaker can be used as the other disconnecting means.


Switch and Circuit Breaker to Be Indicating


IV. Construction


Polarity in Cord- and Plug-Connected Appliances

The attachment plug must be polarized or of the grounding type if the appliance has a single-pole line connected manually operated switch; an Edison-base lampholder; or a 15- or 20-A receptacle. Polarity of Edison-base lampholders are noted in Section 410.42(A). There is an exception for a hand-held double-insulated shaver.


Cord- and Plug-Connected Appliances Subject to Immersion

A portable free-standing hydromassage unit or hand-held hair dryer has to be made to protect the user from electrocution if the unit becomes immersed when in the on or off position.


Signals for Heated Appliances


Flexible Cords

Specific types of cords are indicated for specific uses, with noted exceptions.


Cord- and Plug-Connected Immersion Heaters


Stands for Cord- and Plug-Connected Appliances




Water Heater Controls


Infrared Lamp Industrial Heating Appliances


High-Pressure Spray Washers


Cord- and Plug-Connected Heating Assemblies


Cord- and Plug-Connected Vending Machines


V. Marking of Appliances



An easily accessible or visible nameplate with a name and rating in volts and amperes or volts and watts must be installed. Frequency must be noted when applicable.


Marking of Heating Elements

They must be marked if rated over 1 A, are replaceable in the field, and are part of an appliance.


Appliances Consisting of Motors and Other Loads

Article 90 Introduction


Wiring and Protection

Wiring Methods and Materials

Equipment for General Use

Special Occupancies

Special Equipment

Special Conditions


Annex C. Conduit and Tubing Fill Tables for Conductors and Fixture Wires of the Same Size

Annex D. Examples

Annex E. Types of Construction

Pocket Guide to the National Electrical Code 2005
Pocket Guide to the National Electrical Code(R), 2005 Edition (8th Edition)
ISBN: 0131480014
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 120 © 2008-2020.
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