Hack 11. Convert Aggregate Subqueries to JOINs

You can avoid subqueries using JOIN or OUTER JOIN if they don't use aggregate functions. But what about subqueries that do use aggregation?

Some subqueries are easy to eliminate [Hack #10], but others are a bit trickier. Suppose you have the orders table shown in Table 2-6.

Table 2-6. The orders table

customer whn totalitems
Jim 2006-10-10 5
Jim 2006-10-11 3
Jim 2006-10-12 1
Brian 2006-10-10 7

Now suppose you need to show the date on which each customer purchased the most totalitems:

SELECT customer,whn,totalitems
FROM orders o1
WHERE o1.whn = (
 FROM orders o2
 WHERE o1.customer = o2.customer

To do this you need to execute the subquery for every row of orders, so the preceding code may be slow to execute. In addition, older versions of MySQL cannot handle subqueries. To avoid using a subquery, you can use a HAVING clause with a self-join:

SELECT o1.customer,o1.whn,o1.totalitems
 FROM orders o1 JOIN orders o2 on (o1.customer = o2.customer)
 GROUP BY o1.customer,o1.whn,o1.totalitems
 HAVING o1.whn = max(o2.whn)

Here's what you'll get as a result:

| customer | whn | totalitems |
| Brian | 2006-10-10 | 7 |
| Jim | 2006-10-12 | 1 |
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

This approach works well for all aggregate functions.

SQL Fundamentals

Joins, Unions, and Views

Text Handling

Date Handling

Number Crunching

Online Applications

Organizing Data

Storing Small Amounts of Data

Locking and Performance


Users and Administration

Wider Access


SQL Hacks
SQL Hacks
ISBN: 0596527993
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 147
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