average rows that are already in the table. Single-set aggregate operations are also possible on insert and delete operations as seen in this example:
Declare a number; begin delete from employee where sal > 1000 returning avg(sal) into a; dbms_output.put_line(a); end;
Normally, data is stored in a fairly dense format. However, in certain cases, this is not the case and data may be sparse in its nature. An example might be in an inventory report, we might not have inventoried a specific product over the period (perhaps there was none of that product in stock), but we might still want to reflect a 0 inventory for that product rather than a NULL.
A grouped table outer join (or partitioned outer join) allows you to improve the performance of SQL statements (and create easier-to-read SQL statements) that involve time-based calculations. The grouped table outer join allows you to fill in missing (or sparse) data in your joins. Here is an example of using a partitioned outer join:
SELECT emp_name, dname, t.sales_date, NVL(amount,0) dense_sales FROM (SELECT SUBSTR(e.ename,1,15) emp_name, d.dname, s.sales_date sales_date, SUM(Amount) amount FROM Sales s, dept d, emp e WHERE s.empno = e.empno AND e.deptno=d.deptno AND s.sales_date > sysdate - 365 AND d.deptno=30 GROUP BY SUBSTR(e.ename,1,15), d.dname, s.sales_date ) v PARTITION BY (v.emp_name) RIGHT OUTER JOIN (SELECT DISTINCT sales_date FROM sales WHERE sales_date > sysdate - 365 ) t ON (v.sales_date = t.sales_date) ORDER BY t.sales_date;
And here is an example of the output from this query:
EMP_NAME DNAME SALES_DATE DENSE_SALES ---------- -------------- -------------- ----------- ALLEN SALES 02/01/2004 100 WARD 02/01/2004 0 ALLEN 02/02/2004 0 WARD SALES 02/02/2004 200