The directory /etc/postfix contains Postfix configuration files. The two most important files used in the configuration of Postfix are master.cf and main.cf. These files should be owned by, and only writable by, the root user. They should be readable by everyone. Whenever you make changes to these files, you have to reload Postfix for your changes to go into effect:
 If you change the inet_interfaces parameter, you must stop and start Postfix.
# postfix reload
The master daemon is the overall process that controls other Postfix daemons for mail handling. The master daemon uses the master.cf file for its configuration information. The master.cf file contains a line for each Postfix service or transport. Each line has columns that specify how each program should run as part of the overall Postfix system. See Chapter 3 for information on Postfix's architecture and how various components interact with each other. In many installations, you will never have to change the default master.cf file. See Section 4.5 later in the chapter for information on when and how to make changes to master.cf.
4.2.1 The main.cf Configuration File
The main.cf file is the core of your Postfix configuration. Nearly all configuration changes occur in this file. The default main.cf file lists only a portion of the nearly 300 Postfix parameters. Most Postfix parameters do not need to be changed, but the flexibility is there when it's required. All Postfix parameters are listed and described in the various sample configuration files. The sample files are located in the directory specified by the sample_directory parameter, which is usually the same directory as your main.cf file. Both the main.cf file and the sample files that come with the Postfix distribution contain comments that explain each of the parameters.
You can edit main.cf with the postconf command, as you saw earlier in the chapter, or you can change the file directly with any text editor (such as vi or emacs). The file contains blank lines, comment lines, and lines that assign values to parameters. Comment lines start with the # character and continue to the end of the line. Blank and comment lines are ignored by Postfix. Parameters can appear in any order within the file, and are written as you would expect:
 Postfix expects configuration files to contain normal Unix-style line endings. If you edit your configuration files from another platform, such as Windows or Mac, make sure that your editor uses the correct line endings for Unix.
parameter = value
A parameter definition must start in the first column of the line. The spaces around the equals sign are optional.
Here is an example parameter assignment with a comment:
# The myhostname value must be a fully qualified hostname. myhostname = mail.example.com # The rest of the file continues below...
You cannot have a comment on the same line as a parameter. The following example is incorrect and, with some parameters, could cause unexpected behavior that might be difficult to track down:
# # This is a bad parameter assignment. Never do this. # myhostname = mail.example.com # must be fully qualified hostname
Do not use quotation marks around values. They have no significance in the Postfix configuration, so they would be considered part of the value, which is probably not what you want.
184.108.40.206 Line continuation
A line that starts with whitespace (tabs or spaces) is considered a continuation of the previous line. This allows you to continue long parameter values onto multiple lines. The parameter assignment:
mydestination = example.com oreilly.com ora.com postfix.org
is the same as:
mydestination = example.com oreilly.com ora.com postfix.org
220.127.116.11 Configuration variables
You can refer to the value of a defined parameter by putting a $ in front of the parameter name:
mydomain = example.com myorigin = $mydomain
This causes the value of myorigin to be "example.com."
You can reference a value in the file even before it has been set. The following example works as well as the previous one:
myorigin = $mydomain mydomain = example.com
18.104.22.168 Multiple values
Many parameters can have more than one value. Multiple values can be separated by commas, spaces, tabs, or new lines. Remember that when you separate values with new lines there must be spaces or tabs in front of the values to indicate a continuation of the previous line:
mydestination = $mydomain, example.com, oreilly.com mydestination = $mydomain example.com oreilly.com mydestination = $mydomain example.com oreilly.com
These three assignments to mydestination are effectively the same.
Certain parameters allow you to place multiple values in a text file and then point the parameter to that file in main.cf. A value that starts with a forward slash is assumed to be a pointer to a file. If your system receives mail locally for many destinations, you may want to keep the list of destinations in a separate file. Then point the mydestination parameter to that file:
mydestination = /etc/postfix/destinations
The parameters that can use external files to store values are those that accept lists where the order of the listed items is not significant, such as mynetworks, mydestination, and relay_domains. Check the documentation for a particular parameter to see if it supports this feature.
If you have thousands of items in a list, it can be more efficient to keep them in a lookup table instead. Lookup tables are described in the next section.
Whenever you make a change to main.cf, you must reload Postfix for your changes to go into effect:
# postfix reload
See Section 4.4.2 later in the chapter for more information about stopping and starting Postfix.
4.2.2 Lookup Tables
Rather than using complicated rewriting or pattern transformation rules as Sendmail does, Postfix makes use of simple, yet flexible, lookup tables. Many parameters point to lookup tables to obtain important configuration information. One such parameter is canonical_maps. It's used to rewrite email addresses in messages. Consider a site that uses account names internally for email addresses, but wants any publicly visible addresses to have the form firstname.lastname@example.org. For example, the address email@example.com should appear as firstname.lastname@example.org. A canonical_maps lookup table provides the mapping from a key (email@example.com) to a value (firstname.lastname@example.org).
There are many parameters that use lookup maps, but they all work on the same principle. An email message (or client) provides some kind of key used to look up a value. Based on the value, Postfix takes some action or makes some change.
22.214.171.124 Lookup table format
Postfix lookup tables are usually Unix database files, which are specially indexed files that provide faster access to the stored items. Lookup tables start as simple text files, with each key and value on the same line separated by spaces or tabs:
# # canonical mappings # email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Each entry has a unique key. The keys are often referred to as the LHS, or lefthand side of an entry, and the values are referred to as the RHS, or righthand side of an entry. Keys in lookup tables are not case-sensitive. The files can contain comment and blank lines just like main.cf, and line continuation works by putting whitespace at the beginning of carry-over lines. Lookup tables also do not treat quotation marks with any special significance.
Once you have created a text file with all of your mappings, you have to execute the postmap command against it to create the actual indexed version of the file:
# postmap /etc/postfix/canonical
Whenever you change your text file you must execute postmap against it.
The postmap command can also be used to query lookup tables. Use the -q option to query a value:
# postmap -q email@example.com /etc/postfix/canonical firstname.lastname@example.org
126.96.36.199 Database formats
Different types of Unix database files have different internal formats. The format you use depends on the database libraries available on your system. Normally Postfix supports one or more of three types: btree, dbm, and hash. Depending on your system libraries, you may have fewer or more than these three types available. It's important to know which map type you use. The postconf command with the -m option lists all of the map types supported by your installation of Postfix:
$ postconf -m static pcre nis regexp environ proxy btree unix hash
The output of this command lists all map types, some of which are used for access to other kinds of storage. But you should find at least one of the three database types (btree, dbm, and hash).
The default_database_type parameter tells you which database type Postfix uses by default:
$ postconf default_database_type default_database_type = hash
If you don't specify a database type with postmap, it automatically uses your default type. In general, you can just use the default type configured on your system, but you must know what it is when assigning lookup tables to mapping parameters.
When you assign a lookup table to a parameter, you must specify both the map type and the path to the lookup table. The format of lookup maps is:
parameter = type:name
where type is the storage access method and name is the resource containing keys and values. With indexed datafile lookups, name is the filename. The canonical example is assigned as follows:
canonical_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/canonical
You can assign multiple lookup tables to a parameter. Postfix searches the tables in the order listed, stopping as soon as it finds a match. Some table lookups are recursive, depending on the parameter. The canonical_maps parameter in these examples is one such parameter. With recursive lookups, once a value is found, Postfix tries to match it against all of the keys again until a key matches itself or is not found.
You may have noticed that when postmap indexes files, it creates additional files. postmap creates either one additional file with the extension .db, or two additional files with the extensions .dir and .pag, depending on your database format. When you assign the lookup table to its parameter, specify the path and filename without any extensions.
188.8.131.52 Search order
Since keys are often email addresses, Postfix automatically parses addresses, breaking them up into their parts. You can have keys that match a full address, just the domain portion, or just the local part. The way Postfix searches for addresses or portions of addresses depends on the type of mapping parameter. Certain maps might sensibly include the simple local part of an address, such as canonical_maps. Others would not expect a local part key, such as transport_maps. The order in which Postfix searches for a match differs slightly, depending on which type of parameter it's working with. Check the lookup table's manpage to see which search order it follows.
The search order where local parts are expected, such as with canonical_maps, relocated_maps, and virtual_alias_maps, is as follows:
For lookup tables where it doesn't make sense to have a local part, such as with transport_maps, Postfix searches for matches in the following order:
If you always want domains to match themselves plus any subdomain, you can simplify your lookup tables somewhat by setting the parent_domain_matches_subdomains parameter. The parameter, by default, contains many lists. To add transport_maps to the list, append it as follows:
parent_domain_matches_subdomains = debug_peer_list fast_flush_domains mynetworks permit_mx_backup_networks qmqpd_authorized_clients relay_domains smtpd_access_maps transport_maps transport_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/transport
Now, a domain entry in the /etc/postfix/transport matches itself and all of its subdomains automatically. You no longer need any entries such as the third item, .example.com, from the preceding list.
184.108.40.206 Lookup tables and simple lists
Some parameters that normally take a simple list, such as mydestination, can also be specified with a lookup table. The LHS keys are the items in the list. You still have to provide a RHS value for each key, but the value is simply ignored. You can specify any text you want. It's a good place to provide yourself a comment. Using a lookup table for a straight list is useful when you have thousands of items; otherwise, a simple text file is more than adequate and probably has better performance. If you use a lookup table for lists of network IP addresses, you cannot use the network/netmask notation to specify an entire subnet. You must list each address individually. Check the documentation to see if a list parameter supports the lookup table feature.
220.127.116.11 Regular expression tables
Postfix provides a special lookup table type using regular expressions that offers even more flexibility for matching keys in lookup tables. Regular expressions are used in many Unix utilities. They provide a powerful tool for specifying matching patterns. There are two types of regular expression libraries that you might use with Postfix, depending on which libraries are available on your system.
By default, Postfix uses POSIX extended regular expressions, which I'll refer to as regexp. POSIX, which stands for Portable Operating System Interface, is a standard that encourages portability across different operating systems. It includes specifications for regular expressions. Postfix also supports Perl-compatible regular expressions, which I'll refer to as pcre. If you're used to regular expressions in Perl, you'll find that regexp patterns are a bit different. If you want pcre support, be sure you have a pcre library to link with when building Postfix. With the pcre format, some features differ from regexp, and the performance is usually better. It's possible that your Postfix distribution already includes pcre support. You can check by executing the postconf command with the -m option, as you did earlier in the chapter.
If pcre is listed among your map types, then you can use Perl-style regular expressions for your regular expression lookup tables. But don't rush to add pcre support if you don't have it; the default regexp is quite powerful and usually adequate for administrators who need regular expressions. Install pcre only if you know of particular Perl-style regular expression features you need.
Both Perl-style and POSIX regular expressions are very well-documented in many places. Any book on Perl should include information on its regular expressions, and if you have Perl installed on your system, you should find a manpage called perlre(1). Documentation for regexp usually appears in a manpage called re_format(7). If your system does not include the manpage, you should be able to find it on the Web. sed & awk by Dale Dougherty and Arnold Robbins (O'Reilly) contains information on POSIX regular expressions.
To use regular expression tables, specify either regexp or pcre as the map type when assigning tables to map parameters:
body_checks = regexp:/etc/postfix/re_body_checks
Entries in re_body_checks are conventionally specifiedwith the regular expression pattern between two forward slashesas the key, followed by whitespace, followed by the mapped value:
The most common use of regular expression tables is with the header_checks and body_checks parameters for blocking spam. See Chapter 11 for more information.
4.2.3 Other Formats
Postfix can make use of other backend systems for its lookup tables. (Later chapters discuss using MySQL and LDAP lookup tables.) When you make use of these external sources for lookup values, you should start with one of the simple database formats, such as dbm or hash. Make sure your configuration works as expected. After setting up your external data source, verify that it returns the same results as your simple tables.
The postmap with the -q option is an important tool for testing any kind of lookup table. For example, the following two commands should return the same values when you test your MySQL database:
$ postmap -q hash:/etc/postfix/transport $ postmap -q mysql:/etc/postfix/transport.cf
See Chapter 15 for more information on using Postfix with external data sources.
4.2.4 Alias Files
Alias files are a special case of Postfix lookup tables because they use a Sendmail-compatible format. The file has traditionally been called aliases, and its location depends on your platform, but it is normally within the /etc directory or a subdirectory below it. By default, Postfix is configured to point to your original aliases file, so if you are migrating from Sendmail, your existing aliases continue to work.
18.104.22.168 Locating aliases
Historically, email systems used a single alias database. Postfix lets you have as many as you want. Multiple alias files can help in organizing your configuration information. Typically, administrators configure multiple alias files for convenience when configuring separate mailing lists. The alias_maps parameter points to your alias files.
If your system supports NIS, which is a network database of users (including their aliases), then by default Postfix includes NIS among your alias maps. A typical default alias_maps looks like the following:
alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases, nis:mail.aliases
If your system includes support for NIS, but you're not using it, you should change the parameter so that it points to your aliases file only:
alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases
You may want to locate your aliases file in your Postfix configuration directory for consistency. Some administrators prefer to have all of the email configuration files located together. Simply reassign alias_maps to point to the new location:
alias_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/aliases
You should also reassign alias_database so that your newaliases command continues to work correctly (see the next section):
alias_database = hash:/etc/postfix/aliases
22.214.171.124 Building alias database files
Since the format of alias maps differs from that of Postfix lookup tables, you cannot use postmap to build the alias database from your text file. Instead, Postfix provides the postalias command. Its command-line syntax is the same as that of postmap, allowing you to create or query alias maps. To build an alias database from your aliases file, execute the following:
# postalias /etc/aliases
Another Sendmail compatibility command related to alias files is the newaliases command. It provides a convenient way to rebuild your alias databases. The Postfix installation includes a replacement version of the command that follows the same syntax as the original. It's normally executed with no arguments and determines which alias files to rebuild from the alias_database parameter. The alias_database parameter differs from alias_maps in that it includes only standard Unix database-mapped files (those that should be indexed by newaliases), whereas alias_maps might also contain other map types such as nis. newaliases uses the default_database_type parameter discussed earlier to determine which database format to use.
126.96.36.199 Alias file format
The text file for alias databases is much like Postfix lookup tables, except for the alias definition itself. Alias files can have blank and comment lines that are ignored. Comments are marked by a # at the beginning of the line and cannot be on the same line as an alias definition. A single alias definition can be broken onto multiple lines by starting continuation lines with whitespace.
The form of an alias definition consists of the name being aliased, followed by a colon, followed by one or more targets for the aliased name. Aliases can be directed to different types of targets (discussed below). Multiple targets are separated by commas. Both aliases and targets should be quoted if they contain whitespace or any special characters such as a #, :, and @:
alias: target1, target2, ...
The LHS aliases are always local addresses, so you cannot specify a domain name with an alias key. The target is often one or more addresses, but can be any of the following:
Any RFC 2822 address is allowed, meaning target addresses can be local or forwarded to another site for delivery. For example:
kyle.dent: kdent, email@example.com
Specify the full path to a file. New messages are appended to the file specified. Delivery occurs to the file as it would to any local mailbox. See Chapter 7 for information on local delivery to mailboxes and on specifying different mailbox formats. For example:
Specify a pipe character and a command. See Chapter 14 for more information on delivery to commands. For example:
An included file contains a list of additional alias targets. The targets in the file can be any valid target type as described here, but by default filenames and commands are not allowed. The next section discusses configuration parameters to override these default restrictions. For example:
Normally, when Postfix makes a local delivery it assumes the identity of the recipient of the message. With aliases, Postfix uses the identity of the owner of the alias file, except when the file is owned by root. When a delivery would occur as root, Postfix uses the identity of the account configured with the default_privs parameter instead.
188.8.131.52 Alias restrictions
You can control which kinds of targets are allowed in your alias files with the parameters allow_mail_to_commands and allow_mail_to_files. Each of these parameters takes a list of the aliasing mechanism that permits its action. Aliasing mechanisms are "alias," the alias file we've been discussing; "include," the include target, and "forward," which is the .forward file discussed in Chapter 7.
The default setting for the two parameters is to allow delivery to commands and files from both alias and .forward files, but not from include files, for security considerations. If you want to disallow delivery to commands and files from your aliases database entirely, set the parameters to blank:
allow_mail_to_commands = allow_mail_to_files =
If you would like to make delivery to commands and files available in all the alias mechanisms, set the parameters as follows:
allow_mail_to_commands = alias, forward, include allow_mail_to_files = alias, forward, include
This setting is equivalent to the default behavior for Sendmail. However, it could expose access to possibly vulnerable mailing-list managers that might be coerced into adding a filename or command as a destination address. If you don't need the additional include option for files and commands, it's best to accept the Postfix default.
184.108.40.206 Important aliases
There are several common aliases that are configured by default. By convention, these system aliases point to the root account. You want to make sure that root's mail is read regularly. This is normally accomplished by creating an alias for root to the normal login account of the person or persons responsible for system administration.
RFC 2142 defines several mailbox names that all domains should have, depending on which services they run on the Internet. At a minimum, you should have a postmaster alias, and you should review the RFC to see if there are other aliases you want to create.
General Configuration and Administration
Email and DNS
Local Delivery and POP/IMAP
Hosting Multiple Domains
Blocking Unsolicited Bulk Email
Transport Layer Security
Appendix A. Configuration Parameters
Appendix B. Postfix Commands
Appendix C. Compiling and Installing Postfix
Appendix D. Frequently Asked Questions