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The CM model is an inter-domain management technology that increases TI network's flexibility, extendibility, cost reduction, and competitive edge. The model's inter-domain architecture is based on common object request broker architecture (CORBA*), application programming interface (API) technologies enhanced by inter-domain management systems (DMSs), and service layer application technologies (Amintas & Swart, 2000; Glithos, 1998; Morrison, 2000).
To interface a TI network with users' systems and components and to improve their processes, the CM provides its users with five inter-domain management applications (Leigh, 1999; Manley & Thomas, 1997; Pavon & Thomas, 1998):
Inter-Domain Fault Manager (ID-FM); performs root cause analysis of the faults in the network, alarms the system, and initiates precautionary procedures using its two primary modules: Fault Manager and Correlation Manager.
Fault Manager-alarms a system of possible faulty information from DMSs and prepares and transfers the information to the Correlation Manager.
Correlation Manager-performs real-time root cause analysis of the faulty information, returns the results to appropriate Fault Managers, and tickets the users.
Inter-Domain Capacity Manager (ID-CM); controls transmission capacity of voice and data through the interdependent and multilayered systems. It uses various technologies such as TDM, ATM, SONET, SDH, FR, DWDM, and IP to manage voice and data volumes. The application performs its tasks through the following activities:
Service thresholds-determines service capacity limits for user systems and components by evaluating point-to-point service volumes and performing trend analysis.
Equipment status-determines number of equipments in need of repair and to be purchased, and their status at a given time. It also alerts the network of possible critical equipment shortages and problem areas.
Capacity analysis-determines the level of existing and pending equipment capacities.
Capacity reporting-creates periodic and on-demand capacity reports.
Bandwidth analysis-monitors bandwidth capacity and percent usage of the logical ports.
Status reporting-compares capacity status of various logical ports with their thresholds and alarms the network appropriate ID-CMs of the overflows.
Inter-Domain Tree Manager (ID-TM); controls and maintains a complete analysis of planned and allocated transport services and facilities. This technology includes two primary modules (Chatzipapadopoulos et al., 2000; Gee-Hyun & Aspinwall, 1999; Yamamura, 1997):
Logical Tree Manager-controls the connectivity databases that interact between facility managers and end-to-end transport services and references them to the domain. These references contain networks' real-time work detail, upgrades, and history of all activities. The Logical Tree Manager functions are as follows:
Preparing and controlling end-to-end service development plans, hierarchical flow charts and responsibilities, and facility assignments.
Informing the hierarchy and responsible users of the changes to the transport services and domain references and updating the information.
Documenting the information received from service managers and updating their connectivity databases.
Maintaining and updating service request information.
View Manager-generates permanent and query reports of the network connectivity information to the designated service managers and users. It receives and updates information from other domains (e.g., IDTM, IDPM, IDFM, IDCM, etc.). This module regularly interfaces with end-to-end service managers, end-to-end design managers, and their users, and provides a comprehensive view of the network connectivity activities. It provides sensitivity analysis of the process, output options, and fault topological studies and updates physical inventory information.
Inter-Domain Provisioning Manager (ID-PM); controls and maintains provisioning of services and facilities within the network. It is a source to disseminate information to other domains and their end-to-end managers. Its efforts cross other technologies by maintaining design and development provision activities and resource allocations within the domains. The provisioning process begins with the designated end-to-end manager in a domain, to documenting and updating the information, and ending with a query or regular report (Eldering & Sylla, 1999; Kibirige, 2000; Manley & Thomas, 1997).
Inter-Domain Presentation Manager (ID-PMR); uses interface domain capabilities to (Amintas & Swarte, 2000; Grover & Vaswani, 2000; Keenly, 2001):
Provide user web-based interface (UWI), which maintains and integrates user access to the domains.
Receive information from other domains and update the UWI.
Inform service managers of their updated information and user requests.
Monitor user requests and initiate follow-ups.
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