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Most TI networks consist of a variety of systems with differing operating environments. They include a host of heterogeneous technologies and management methods that are mostly inconsistent, are not standardized, lack resources, need upgrading and are very costly. The SD&D of these networks experience difficulties bridging TI networks with user systems and are not able to properly converge their voice and data telephony. Vertical management tools are becoming predominant in these environments. While adding their abilities to interface with new technolo-gies, they also add their own complexities. As a result, TI has attempted to standardize its networks by adapting similar technologies across the board and unifying a multiple vendor policy (Rogers et al., 1999; Temme & Beroggi, 19).
Network users and providers are encouraged to become more proactive in cooperating with the SD&D as anew system is being developed. The users and service providers are asked to work with SD&D to more efficiently manage and integrate their existing diverse and complex legacy systems and also to implement modern technologies such as time division multiplexing (TDM), asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), synchronous optical network (SONET), synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH), frame relay (FR), dense wavelength division multiplexer (DWDM), internet protocol (IP), and others to their advantage (Mezher & Abdul-Malak, 1999; Morrison, 2000).
CM uses an inter-domain management system to integrate physical and logical applications of a network with its processes. The inter-domain management system bridges network applications using the following nine technologies (Dixit & Guo, 2001; Garg & Ness-Cohn, 1998):
Single point entry; ensures that data is properly entered from one point of entry and properly processed, tracked, and monitored.
End-to-end design; ensures synchronization and coordination of the logical and physical data for systems that traverse the service provider's hybrid network.
Expeditious attention; ensures immediate process of voice and data that contain system compositions.
Service management; ensures that user services are effectively provided, monitored, upgraded, and managed.
Single access point; ensures that users are able to access converged voice and data, control their logical and physical systems on a real-time basis, and enhance their information flow.
Capacity thresholds; ensures that voice and data convergence capacity limitations are developed, triggering mechanisms are activated, and backups are accessible when thresholds are reached.
Demand tracking; ensures tracking of pending equipments, parts, tools, facilities, and technologies such as TDM, ATM, SONET, SDH, FR, DWDM, IP, etc.
Root cause fault analysis; ensures identification and isolation of problem areas, analysis of each situation, and their eliminations using the inter-domain fault correlation.
Standard and open interfaces; ensures fault, performance, and physical inventory management of the existing and legacy domain configuration systems using standard and open interfaces such as Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA*).
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