A specific architecture (usually represented diagrammatically as horizontal layers) in which modules are ordered and each module interacts primarily or exclusively with adjacent modules. As a layered industry organization for infrastructure (called a horizontal structure by economists), each firm supplies a layer of the infrastructure serving a comprehensive set of applications, depending on complementary layers from other suppliers for a total solution. This is distinct from a stovepipe (called a vertical structure by economists), in which each firm segments the market and provides a complete solution.
A grant of the right to use intellectual property, accompanied by an agreement spelling out detailed terms and conditions (including payment).
Where something (host, module, object) can be found preparatory to interacting with it. In software, location is usually specified in logical (host or topological connection point to a network) rather than geographic terms. Location services assist in locating things. One common location service is a directory, which provides the relations between names and locations. A name is a logical label that uniquely distinguishes one entity from another within a specified scope.
Competitive advantage of a supplier, when an existing customer will incur excess switching costs in choosing an alternative supplier.