Information about a user (or other entity, like a host or component), including name and other personal information. Authentication allows an identity to be verified. An anonymous identity distinguishes an entity from all others without supplying any personal information and is useful in observing behavior without an invasion of privacy.
A firm that is primarily a supplier that licenses software to others, as distinct from a software developer within an end-user organization or an equipment supplier that also develops its own embedded software.
See network effects.
From a user perspective, recognizable patterns conveyed by a material medium (e.g., sound, light) that inform or influence us in some way, such as contributing to our knowledge or humor or emotion, or that influence us to take action. Within information technology, information comprises recognizable patterns represented by data (a finite collection of bits, each bit or binary digit assuming the value 0 or 1). Digital information is represented by a finite set of discrete values (usually, bits), whereas analog information is represented by continuous physical quantities (e.g., air pressure or voltage).
An integrated bundle of hardware and software that provides a single application.
Technology encompasses knowledge on changing nature to accommodate human needs and wants; human artifacts (not natural phenomena) that make use of these ideas and knowledge; processes and infrastructure for acquiring that knowledge; and designing, manufacturing, operating, and repairing those artifacts. Information technology is dedicated to capturing, manipulating, storing, communicating, and accessing digital information.
Making modules work together properly through composition, testing, and refinement. Within software development, integration turns a collection of module implementations into a software release. Integration of software from different suppliers is an important part of provisioning, and thus an independent firm that performs provisioning is sometimes called a system integrator.
A set of government-sanctioned property rights granting ownership privileges to the creators of immaterial goods like information and software. Specific rights include the trademark (right to exclusive use of a name or symbol), trade secret (right to prevent the theft of proprietary information through malfeasance), patent (exclusive right to exploit a useful and novel idea), and copyright (right to control the replication and distribution of a creative work).
See object-request broker (ORB).