14.1 What Is a Multicast Socket?

     

Multicasting is broader than unicast, point-to-point communication but narrower and more targeted than broadcast communication. Multicasting sends data from one host to many different hosts , but not to everyone; the data only goes to clients that have expressed an interest by joining a particular multicast group . In a way, this is like a public meeting. People can come and go as they please , leaving when the discussion no longer interests them. Before they arrive and after they have left, they don't need to process the information at all: it just doesn't reach them. On the Internet, such "public meetings" are best implemented using a multicast socket that sends a copy of the data to a location (or a group of locations) close to the parties that have declared an interest in the data. In the best case, the data is duplicated only when it reaches the local network serving the interested clients: the data crosses the Internet only once. More realistically , several identical copies of the data traverse the Internet; but, by carefully choosing the points at which the streams are duplicated, the load on the network is minimized. The good news is that programmers and network administrators aren't responsible for choosing the points where the data is duplicated or even for sending multiple copies; the Internet's routers handle all that.

IP also supports broadcasting, but the use of broadcasts is strictly limited. Protocols require broadcasts only when there is no alternative, and routers limit broadcasts to the local network or subnet, preventing broadcasts from reaching the Internet at large. Even a few small global broadcasts could bring the Internet to its knees. Broadcasting high-bandwidth data such as audio, video, or even text and still images is out of the question. A single email spam that goes to millions of addresses is bad enough. Imagine what would happen if a real-time video feed were copied to all six hundred million Internet users, whether they wanted to watch it or not.

However, there's a middle ground between point-to-point communications and broadcasts to the whole world. There's no reason to send a video feed to hosts that aren't interested in it; we need a technology that sends data to the hosts that want it, without bothering the rest of the world. One way to do this is to use many unicast streams. If 1,000 clients want to listen to a RealAudio broadcast, the data is sent a thousand times. This is inefficient, since it duplicates data needlessly, but it's orders-of-magnitude more efficient than broadcasting the data to every host on the Internet. Still, if the number of interested clients is large enough, you will eventually run out of bandwidth or CPU powerprobably sooner rather than later.

Another approach to the problem is to create static connection trees . This is the solution employed by Usenet news and some conferencing systems (notably CUseeMe). Data is fed from the originating site to other servers, which replicate it to still other servers, which eventually replicate it to clients. Each client connects to the nearest server. This is more efficient than sending everything to all interested clients via multiple unicasts , but the scheme is kludgy and beginning to show its age. New sites need to find a place to hook into the tree manually. The tree does not necessarily reflect the best possible topology at any one time, and servers still need to maintain many point-to-point connections to their clients, sending the same data to each one. It would be better to allow the routers in the Internet to dynamically determine the best possible routes for transmitting distributed information and to replicate data only when absolutely necessary. This is where multicasting comes in.

For example, if you're multicasting video from New York and 20 people attached to one LAN are watching the show in Los Angeles, the feed will be sent to that LAN only once. If 50 more people are watching in San Francisco, the data stream will be duplicated somewhere (let's say Fresno) and sent to the two cities. If a hundred more people are watching in Houston, another data stream will be sent there (perhaps from St. Louis); see Figure 14-1. The data has crossed the Internet only three timesnot the 170 times that would be required by point-to-point connections, or the millions of times that would be required by a true broadcast. Multicasting is halfway between the point-to-point communication common to the Internet and the broadcast model of television and it's more efficient than either. When a packet is multicast, it is addressed to a multicast group and sent to each host belonging to the group. It does not go to a single host (as in unicasting ), nor does it go to every host (as in broadcasting). Either would be too inefficient.

Figure 14-1. Multicast from New York to San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Houston
figs/jnp3_1401.gif

When people start talking about multicasting, audio and video are the first applications that come to mind; however, they are only the tip of the iceberg. Other possibilities include multiplayer games , distributed filesystems, massively parallel computing, multiperson conferencing, database replication, and more. Multicasting can be used to implement name services and directory services that don't require the client to know a server's address in advance; to look up a name , a host could multicast its request to some well-known address and wait until a response is received from the nearest server. Apple's Rendezvous (a.k.a. Zeroconf) and Sun's Jini both use IP multicasting to dynamically discover services on the local network.

Multicasting should also make it easier to implement various kinds of caching for the Internet, which will be important if the Net's population continues to grow faster than available bandwidth. Martin Hamilton has proposed using multicasting to build a distributed server system for the World Wide Web. ("Evaluating Resource Discovery Applications of IP Multicast", http://martinh.net/eval/eval.html, 1995.) For example, a high-traffic web server could be split across multiple machines, all of which share a single hostname, mapped to a multicast address. Suppose one machine chunks out HTML files, another handles images, and a third processes servlets. When a client makes a request to the multicast address, the request is sent to each of the three servers. When a server receives the request, it looks to see whether the client wants an HTML file, an image, or a servlet response. If the server can handle the request, it responds. Otherwise, the server ignores the request and lets the other servers process it. It is easy to imagine more complex divisions of labor between distributed servers.

Multicasting has been designed to fit into the Internet as seamlessly as possible. Most of the work is done by routers and should be transparent to application programmers. An application simply sends datagram packets to a multicast address, which isn't fundamentally different from any other IP address. The routers make sure the packet is delivered to all the hosts in the multicast group. The biggest problem is that multicast routers are not yet ubiquitous; therefore, you need to know enough about them to find out whether multicasting is supported on your network. As far as the application itself, you need to pay attention to an additional header field in the datagrams called the Time-To-Live (TTL) value. The TTL is the maximum number of routers that the datagram is allowed to cross; when it reaches the maximum, it is discarded. Multicasting uses the TTL as an ad hoc way to limit how far a packet can travel. For example, you don't want packets for a friendly on-campus game of Dogfight reaching routers on the other side of the world. Figure 14-2 shows how TTLs limit a packet's spread.

Figure 14-2. Coverage of a packet with a TTL of five
figs/jnp3_1402.gif

14.1.1 Multicast Addresses and Groups

A multicast address is the shared address of a group of hosts called a multicast group . We'll talk about the address first. Multicast addresses are IP addresses in the range 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. All addresses in this range have the binary digits 1110 as their first four bits. They are called Class D addresses to distinguish them from the more common Class A, B, and C addresses. Like any IP address, a multicast address can have a hostname; for example, the multicast address 224.0.1.1 (the address of the Network Time Protocol distributed service) is assigned the name ntp. mcast .net .

A multicast group is a set of Internet hosts that share a multicast address. Any data sent to the multicast address is relayed to all the members of the group. Membership in a multicast group is open ; hosts can enter or leave the group at any time. Groups can be either permanent or transient. Permanent groups have assigned addresses that remain constant, whether or not there are any members in the group. However, most multicast groups are transient and exist only as long as they have members . All you have to do to create a new multicast group is pick a random address from 225.0.0.0 to 238.255.255.255, construct an InetAddress object for that address, and start sending it data.

A number of multicast addresses have been set aside for special purposes. all-systems.mcast.net , 224.0.0.1, is a multicast group that includes all systems that support multicasting on the local subnet. This group is commonly used for local testing, as is experiment.mcast.net , 224.0.1.20. (There is no multicast address that sends data to all hosts on the Internet.) All addresses beginning with 224.0.0 (i.e., addresses from 224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255) are reserved for routing protocols and other low-level activities, such as gateway discovery and group membership reporting. Multicast routers never forward datagrams with destinations in this range.

The IANA is responsible for handing out permanent multicast addresses as needed; so far, a few hundred have been specifically assigned. Most of these begin with 224.0., 224.1., 224.2., or 239. Table 14-1 lists a few of these permanent addresses. A few blocks of addresses ranging in size from a few dozen to a few thousand addresses have also been reserved for particular purposes. The complete list is available from http://www.iana.org/assignments/multicast-addresses. The remaining 248 million Class D addresses can be used on a temporary basis by anyone who needs them. Multicast routers ( mrouters for short) are responsible for making sure that two different systems don't try to use the same Class D address at the same time.

Table 14-1. Common permanent multicast addresses

Domain name

IP address

Purpose

BASE-ADDRESS.MCAST.NET

224.0.0.0

The reserved base address. This is never assigned to any multicast group.

ALL-SYSTEMS.MCAST.NET

224.0.0.1

All systems on the local subnet.

ALL-ROUTERS.MCAST.NET

224.0.0.2

All routers on the local subnet.

DVMRP.MCAST.NET

224.0.0.4

All Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP) routers on this subnet. An early version of the DVMRP protocol is documented in RFC 1075; the current version has changed substantially.

MOBILE- AGENTS .MCAST.NET

224.0.0.11

Mobile agents on the local subnet.

DHCP-AGENTS.MCAST.NET

224.0.0.12

This multicast group allows a client to locate a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server or relay agent on the local subnet.

PIM-ROUTERS.MCAST.NET

224.0.0.13

All Protocol Independent Multicasting (PIM) routers on this subnet.

RSVP-ENCAPSULATION.MCAST.NET

224.0.0.14

RSVP encapsulation on this subnet. RSVP stands for Resource reSerVation setup Protocol, an effort to allow people to reserve a guaranteed amount of Internet bandwidth in advance for an event.

NTP.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.1

The Network Time Protocol.

SGI-DOG.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.2

Silicon Graphics Dogfight game.

NSS.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.6

The Name Service Server.

AUDIONEWS.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.7

Audio news multicast.

SUB-NIS.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.8

Sun's NIS+ Information Service.

MTP.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.9

The Multicast Transport Protocol.

IETF-1-LOW-AUDIO.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.10

Channel 1 of low-quality audio from IETF meetings.

IETF-1-AUDIO.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.11

Channel 1 of high-quality audio from IETF meetings.

IETF-1-VIDEO.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.12

Channel 1 of video from IETF meetings.

IETF-2-LOW-AUDIO.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.13

Channel 2 of low-quality audio from IETF meetings.

IETF-2-AUDIO.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.14

Channel 2 of high-quality audio from IETF meetings.

IETF-2-VIDEO.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.15

Channel 2 of video from IETF meetings.

MUSIC-SERVICE.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.16

Music service.

SEANET-TELEMETRY.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.17

Telemetry data for the U.S. Navy's SeaNet Project to extend the Internet to vessels at sea. See http://web.nps.navy.mil/~seanet/Distlearn/cover.htm.

SEANET-IMAGE.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.18

SeaNet images.

MLOADD.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.19

MLOADD measures the traffic load through one or more network interfaces over a number of seconds. Multicasting is used to communicate between the different interfaces being measured.

EXPERIMENT.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.20

Experiments that do not go beyond the local subnet.

XINGTV.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.23

XING Technology's Streamworks TV multicast.

MICROSOFT.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.24

Used by Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) servers to locate one another.

MTRACE.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.32

A multicast version of traceroute.

JINI-ANNOUNCEMENT.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.84

JINI announcements.

JINI-REQUEST.MCAST.NET

224.0.1.85

JINI requests .

 

224.2.0.0 - 224.2.255.255

The Multicast Backbone on the Internet (MBONE) addresses are reserved for multimedia conference calls, i.e., audio, video, whiteboard, and shared web browsing between many people.

 

224.2.2.2

Port 9,875 on this address is used to broadcast the currently available MBONE programming. You can look at this with the X Window utility sdr or the Windows/Unix multikit program.

 

239.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255

Administrative scope, in contrast to TTL scope, uses different ranges of multicast addresses to constrain multicast traffic to a particular region or group of routers. For example, the IP addresses from 239.178.0.0 to 239.178.255.255 might be an administrative scope for the state of New York. Data addressed to one of those addresses would not be forwarded outside of New York. The idea is to allow the possible group membership to be established in advance without relying on less-than -reliable TTL values.


The MBONE (or Multicast Backbone on the Internet) is the range of Class D addresses beginning with 224.2. that are used for audio and video broadcasts over the Internet. The word MBONE is sometimes used less restrictively (and less accurately) to mean the portion of the Internet that understands how to route Class D addressed packets.

14.1.2 Clients and Servers

When a host wants to send data to a multicast group, it puts that data in multicast datagrams, which are nothing more than UDP datagrams addressed to a multicast group. Most multicast data is audio or video or both. These sorts of data tend to be relatively large and relatively robust against data loss. If a few pixels or even a whole frame of video is lost in transit, the signal isn't blurred beyond recognition. Therefore, multicast data is sent via UDP, which, though unreliable, can be as much as three times faster than data sent via connection-oriented TCP. (If you think about it, multicast over TCP would be next to impossible . TCP requires hosts to acknowledge that they have received packets; handling acknowledgments in a multicast situation would be a nightmare.) If you're developing a multicast application that can't tolerate data loss, it's your responsibility to determine whether data was damaged in transit and how to handle missing data. For example, if you are building a distributed cache system, you might simply decide to leave any files that don't arrive intact out of the cache.

Earlier, I said that from an application programmer's standpoint, the primary difference between multicasting and using regular UDP sockets is that you have to worry about the TTL value. This is a single byte in the IP header that takes values from to 255; it is interpreted roughly as the number of routers through which a packet can pass before it is discarded. Each time the packet passes through a router, its TTL field is decremented by at least one; some routers may decrement the TTL by two or more. When the TTL reaches zero, the packet is discarded. The TTL field was originally designed to prevent routing loops by guaranteeing that all packets would eventually be discarded; it prevents misconfigured routers from sending packets back and forth to each other indefinitely. In IP multicasting, the TTL limits the multicast geographically . For example, a TTL value of 16 limits the packet to the local area, generally one organization or perhaps an organization and its immediate upstream and downstream neighbors. A TTL of 127, however, sends the packet around the world. Intermediate values are also possible. However, there is no precise way to map TTLs to geographical distance. Generally , the farther away a site is, the more routers a packet has to pass through before reaching it. Packets with small TTL values won't travel as far as packets with large TTL values. Table 14-2 provides some rough estimates relating TTL values to geographical reach. Packets addressed to a multicast group from 224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255 are never forwarded beyond the local subnet, regardless of the TTL values used.

Table 14-2. Estimated TTL values for datagrams originating in the continental United States

Destinations

TTL value

The local host

The local subnet

1

The local campusthat is, the same side of the nearest Internet routerbut on possibly different LANs

16

High-bandwidth sites in the same country, generally those fairly close to the backbone

32

All sites in the same country

48

All sites on the same continent

64

High-bandwidth sites worldwide

128

All sites worldwide

255


Once the data has been stuffed into one or more datagrams, the sending host launches the datagrams onto the Internet. This is just like sending regular (unicast) UDP data. The sending host begins by transmitting a multicast datagram to the local network. This packet immediately reaches all members of the multicast group in the same subnet. If the Time-To-Live field of the packet is greater than 1, multicast routers on the local network forward the packet to other networks that have members of the destination group. When the packet arrives at one of the final destinations, the multicast router on the foreign network transmits the packet to each host it serves that is a member of the multicast group. If necessary, the multicast router also retransmits the packet to the next routers in the paths between the current router and all its eventual destinations.

When data arrives at a host in a multicast group, the host receives it as it receives any other UDP datagrameven though the packet's destination address doesn't match the receiving host. The host recognizes that the datagram is intended for it because it belongs to the multicast group to which the datagram is addressed, much as most of us accept mail addressed to "Occupant," even though none of us are named Mr. or Ms. Occupant. The receiving host must be listening on the proper port, ready to process the datagram when it arrives.

14.1.3 Routers and Routing

Figure 14-3 shows one of the simplest possible multicast configurations: a single server sending the same data to four clients served by the same router. A multicast socket sends one stream of data over the Internet to the clients' router; the router duplicates the stream and sends it to each of the clients. Without multicast sockets, the server would have to send four separate but identical streams of data to the router, which would route each stream to a client. Using the same stream to send the same data to multiple clients significantly reduces the bandwidth required on the Internet backbone.

Of course, real-world routes can be much more complex, involving multiple hierarchies of redundant routers. However, the goal of multicast sockets is simple: no matter how complex the network, the same data should never be sent more than once over any given network segment. Fortunately, you don't need to worry about routing issues. Just create a MulticastSocket , have the socket join a multicast group, and stuff the address of the multicast group in the DatagramPacket you want to send. The routers and the MulticastSocket class take care of the rest.

Figure 14-3. With and without multicast sockets
figs/jnp3_1403.gif

The biggest restriction on multicasting is the availability of special multicast routers (mrouters). Mrouters are reconfigured Internet routers or workstations that support the IP multicast extensions. Many consumer-oriented ISPs quite deliberately do not enable multicasting in their routers. In 2004, it is still possible to find hosts between which no multicast route exists (i.e., there is no route between the hosts that travels exclusively over mrouters).

To send and receive multicast data beyond the local subnet, you need a multicast router. Check with your network administrator to see whether your routers support multicasting. You can also try pinging all-routers.mcast.net . If any router responds, then your network is hooked up to a multicast router:

 %  ping all-routers.mcast.net  all-routers.mcast.net is alive 

This still may not allow you to send to or receive from every multicast-capable host on the Internet. For your packets to reach any given host, there must be a path of multicast-capable routers between your host and the remote host. Alternately, some sites may be connected by special multicast tunnel software that transmits multicast data over unicast UDP that all routers understand. If you have trouble getting the examples in this chapter to produce the expected results, check with your local network administrator or ISP to see whether multicasting is actually supported by your routers.



Java Network Programming
Java Network Programming, Third Edition
ISBN: 0596007213
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2003
Pages: 164

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