c++ neural networks and fuzzy logic C++ Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic
by Valluru B. Rao
M&T Books, IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.
ISBN: 1558515526   Pub Date: 06/01/95

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Variations and Applications of Kohonen Networks

There are many variations of the Kohonen network. Some of these will be briefly discussed in this section.

Using a Conscience

DeSieno has used a conscience factor in a Kohonen network. For a winning neuron, if the neuron is winning more than a fair share of the time (roughly more than 1/n, where n is the number of neurons), then this neuron has a threshold that is applied temporarily to allow other neurons the chance to win. The purpose of this modification is to allow more uniform weight distribution while learning is taking place.

LVQ: Learning Vector Quantizer

You have read about LVQ (Learning Vector Quantizer) in previous chapters. In light of the Kohonen map, it should be pointed out that the LVQ is simply a supervised version of the Kohonen network. Inputs and expected output categories are presented to the network for training. You get data clustered, just as a Kohonen network, according to the similarity to other data inputs.

Counterpropagation Network

A neural network topology, called a counterpropagation network, is a combination of a Kohonen layer with a Grossberg layer. This network was developed by Robert Hecht-Nielsen and is useful for prototyping of systems, with a fairly rapid training time compared to backpropagation. The Kohonen layer provides for categorization, while the Grossberg layer allows for Hebbian conditioned learning. Counterpropagation has been used successfully in data compression applications for images. Compression ratios of 10:1 to 100:1 have been obtained, using a lossy compression scheme that codes the image with a technique called vector quantization, where the image is broken up into representative subimage vectors. The statistics of these vectors is such that you find that a large part of the image can be adequately represented by a subset of all the vectors. The vectors with the highest frequency of occurrence are coded with the shortest bit strings, hence you achieve data compression.

Application to Speech Recognition

Kohonen created a phonetic typewriter by classifying speech waveforms of different phonemes of Finnish speech into different categories using a Kohonen SOM. The Kohonen phoneme map used 50 samples of each phoneme for calibration. These samples caused excitation in a neighborhood of cells more strongly than in other cells. A neighborhood was labeled with the particular phoneme that caused excitation. For an utterance of speech made to the network, the exact neighborhoods that were active during the utterance were noted, and for how long, and in what sequence. Short excitations were taken as transitory sounds. The information obtained from the network was then pieced together to find out the words in the utterance made to the network.


In this chapter, you have learned about one of the important types of competitive learning called Kohonen feature map. The most significant points of this discussion are outlined as follows:

  The Kohonen feature map is an example of an unsupervised neural network that is mainly used as a classifier system or data clustering system. As more inputs are presented to this network, the network improves its learning and is able to adapt to changing inputs.
  The training law for the Kohonen network tries to align the weight vectors along the same direction as input vectors.
  The Kohonen network models lateral competition as a form of self-organization. One winner neuron is derived for each input pattern to categorize that input.
  Only neurons within a certain distance (neighborhood) from the winner are allowed to participate in training for a given input pattern.

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Copyright © IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.

C++ Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic
C++ Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic
ISBN: 1558515526
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 1995
Pages: 139

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