Fast IR-FCC Tariff 15

Fast IR-FCC Tariff #15

Fast IR

A 4Mbps extension to the Serial Infrared Data Link Standard that provides wireless data transmission between IrDA-compliant devices.

Fast Network

An AT&T term for a network with low delay relative to the needs of the application.

Fast Packet Multiplexing

Multiplexing, from Latin "multi" and "plex" translates as "manyfold." In other words, folding many "conversations" onto a single circuit. You can do this in either of two ways ” by splitting the channels sideways into subchannels of narrower frequency. This is called Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM), which is used in analog networks. Or you could split it by time, through a process of Time Division Multiplexing (TDM), which is used in digital networks. TDM is much like a railroad train. The first car carries "Conversation 1." The second carries "Conversation 2." And split them apart at the other end.

Fast packet multiplexing is a combination of three techniques ” time division multiplexing, packetizing of voice and other analog signals, and computer intelligence. Here are the main advantages fast packet multiplexing has over today's industry standard time division multiplexing:

  1. Fast packet multiplexing doesn't blindly slot in "information" from devices if there's no information to send. Most other multiplexing techniques, including the most common ” time division and frequency division ” slot in capacity, whether the device is "talking" or not.

  2. The fast packet multiplexer can start sending a packet before it has completely received the packet. This is accomplished by reading the destination address, which is contained in the header portion of the packet. This speed of movement is critical to voice, for example, which must move ultra -fast. Delays are devastating. (No one can afford to replace the phone instruments broken in anger.)

  3. Fast packet multiplexing can interrupt the delivery of one packet in favor of sending another. It's OK to delay a packet of data by several milliseconds . It's not OK to delay a packet of voice or video.

Fast Packet Services

  1. An umbrella term for ATM, Frame Relay, and SMDS service offerings, all of which operate at broadband speeds and all of which make use of Fast Packet Switches and Multiplexers.

  2. A Verizon definition. Refers to the following high-speed data offerings: Frame Relay Service, Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) and FDDI Network Services. Fast packet applications include real-time inventory control, credit verification, gathering marketing data, and sending or receiving customer information.

Fast Packet Switching

A wide area networking technology capable of switching data at a very high rate of speed in the context of a broadband network service such as Frame Relay, SMDS or ATM. The term "packet" is generic, referring to the manner in which data is formatted. "Data" is also generic in this context, referring to voice data, video data, and image data, as well as data data. Should the data be analog in its native form, it is digitized and packetized before being presented to the network for transport and switching. The packets are in the form of short (53 octets), fixed length cells in the case of SMDS and ATM. The packets are in the form of variable (0-4,096 octets) frames in the case of Frame Relay.

The underlying switching technology is based on the statistical multiplexing of data contained within the cells or frames. While any of these packets could carry digital voice, video, data or image information, only ATM is specifically intended for other than data use. All the packets travel at Level Two of the OSI Model, and routing is performed on the basis of the Level Two addressing. Fast packet is claimed to be very effective way of make best use of available bandwidth. It is claimed to offer the benefits of conventional multiplexing techniques and circuit switching techniques because of the way it operates. It is one of the transmission technologies being developed for use with B-ISDN (Broadband ISDN), which is based on ATM. The switch used to route packets in a fast packet network is termed a fast packet switch. See ATM, Fast Packet Multiplexing, Frame Relay, and SMDS.

Fast Pyramid Algorithm

Pyramid algorithms are used in image compression to compute the wavelet transform. The algorithm implements a complex mathematical procedure, using far fewer calculations than are nominally required, thereby yielding an approximation of the original data. The algorithm involves a series of linear filtering operations, in combination with down-sampling by two of the output. Up-sampling is employed to reconstruct a highly satisfactory approximation of the original data. See Down-Sampling, Up-Sampling and Wavelet Transform.

Fast Scan Receiver

A cellular term. A piece of equipment that scans all 1,300 channels in an entire cellular network. It is a quick way to determine channel usage and signal strength.

Fast Select

In packet switched networks, a calling method which allows the user to send a limited amount of information along with a "call req packet" rather than after the packet. A more technical explanation: An optional user facility in the virtual call service of ITU-T X.25 protocol that allows the inclusion of user data in the call request/connected and clear indication packets. An essential feature of the ITU-T X.25 (1984) protocol.

Fast Stat MUX

MICOM's advanced statistical multiplexer that uses data compression, priority echoplex handling and fast packet technology to improve throughput.

Fast Switching Channel

A single channel on a GPS (Global Positioning System) which rapidly samples a number of satellite ranges. "Fast" means that the switching time is sufficiently fast (2 to 5 milliseconds) to recover the data message.


A type of SCSI, introduced in the SCSI-3 specification, in which the data rate is quadrupled to 20 MBytes per second for narrow SCSI or 40 MBytes per second for wide SCSI. Also known as Fast-20 or Double Speed SCSI.


A type of SCSI in which the data rate is increased to 40 MBytes per second for narrow SCSI or 80 MBytes per second for wide SCSI. Also known as Fast-40.


  1. File Allocation Table. The FAT is an integral part of the MS-DOS and Windows operating systems. It is like a roadmap (or index) of a hard, floppy disk, magneto optical, zip drive, etc. It keeps track of where the various pieces of each file on a disk are stored. A hard disk's directory and file allocation tables are extremely important because they contain the address and mapping information the operating system needs to figure where to store and where to retrieve our precious data. If any of the data storage blocks containing these tables is damaged, it will be very hard, if not impossible to find the data on the hard disk. As a result, all operating systems keep multiple updated copies of their file allocation tables on your computer's hard disk. The two most common

  2. Wide or large, as in fat bandwidth.

FAT Client

Clients are devices and software that request information. Client is a fancy name for a PC on a local area network. It used to be called a workstation. Now it is the "client" of the server. Clients come in two varieties ” Fat and Thin. Here's a definition of Fat Client, courtesy of Oracle Corporation, writing in early 1994: "Since the early 1980s, users have loaded their personal computers with more and more software and data. PCs often are connected to file servers that store information. With each loaded PC costing thousands of dollars, the fat client model has a high cost per machine. Example, a PC or a Macintosh. See also Client, Client Server, Client Server Model, Mainframe Server, Media Server and Thin Client.

FAT File System

A FAT is a file allocation table. It is a roadmap to what's on your hard disk, your floppy, your magneto optical disk, your CD ” any disk associated with your PC. The FAT file system is a fancy way of saying the whole procedure the FAT uses to organize information on your disks. Various computer operating systems use different FAT file systems.

Fat Finger Dialing

The telephone equivalent of typing when you meant For example if you misdail AT&T's collect collecting number, 1-800-COLLECT (1-800-265-5328), you're likely to hit another carrier, like OPticom, which has the following number, 1-800-265-5329 and which may or may not charge a higher fee than AT&T. The Today Show on April 4, 2002 talked about someone called, Joel Drizen who noticed something didn't look right on his phone bill, a four-minute collect call placed to him by his brother three miles away using what he thought was 1- 800-COLLECT. The cost: over $16. A charge almost three times higher than he expected from a company he'd never heard of before, ASC Telecom. After investigation, they realized that he dialed 1-800-COLLLECT with three L's as opposed to two L's. According to Robert Tolchin, an attorney, ASC was basing its entire business model on what they call fat fingers dialing. That means they're going to take advantage of people who have fat fingers and mis-dial the telephone.

Fat Pipe

A fiber- optic cable used on a network backbone for high-speed communications. It has a wide bandwidth for baseband and broadband high-capacity communications.

Fat Server

In a client/server architecture, a server computer that performs most of the processing, with little or none performed by the client.


A computer imaging term. Extreme magnification of individual pixels to allow easy pixel-by-pixel editing of images.


First there is the motherboard. That's the main circuit board of a computer system. The motherboard contains edge connectors or sockets so other PC (printed circuit) boards can be plugged into it. Those PC boards are called Fatherboards. Some fatherboards have pins on them into which you can plug smaller boards. Those boards are called Daughterboards. In a voice processing system, you might have a Fatherboard to do faxing. And you might have a range of Daughterboards, which allow you to connect different types of phone connections. Different boards exist for standard analog tip and ring, digital switched 56, t-1, etc.


Fixed Access Unit. A fixed, wireless telephone placed in a user's home or business using cellular or PCS (Personal Communications Service). A new, lower powered , higher- frequency technology. The device provides local telephony service circumventing existing LEC (Local Exchange Carrier) transmission equipment using wired connections.


A hard failure or a performance degradation so serious as to destroy the ability of a network element to function effectively. Opens, short circuits and breaks are examples of common cable faults.

Fault Current

The current that can flow in a circuit as a result of a undesired short circuit.

Fault Domain

A fault domain defines the boundaries of an isolating soft error on a Token Ring network. The fault domain limits the problem to two stations, their connecting cables, and any equipment (a MAU, for example) between the two stations. The two stations involved are the station reporting the error and its Nearest Active Upstream Neighbor (NAUN).

Fault Isolation

The process of determining where a network problem, or fault located.

Fault Management

Detects, isolates and corrects network faults. It is also one of five categories of network management defined by the ISO (International Standards Organization). See also Fault.

Fault Resilient

A fault resilient computer tends to means that it must be relied on to run 99% of the time. In contrast, a fault tolerant machine must run 100% of the time, which typically means that the design must duplicate the CPU microprocessor. A fault resilient machine will typically be less expensive than a fault tolerant machine. Which you buy depends on what your needs are and the possible cost of losing transactions should your machine go down. See Fault Tolerant.

Fault Tolerant

A method of making a computer or network system resistant to software errors and hardware problems. A fault tolerant LAN system tries to ensure that even in the event of a power failure, a disk crash or a major user error, data isn't lost and the system can keep running. In fact, the general concept is that a fault tolerant machine must be designed with sufficient duplicated parts that it can be relied upon to run 100%. Cabling systems can also be fault tolerant, using redundant wiring so that even if a cable is cut, the system can keep running. True fault tolerance is very difficult to achieve. See Fault Resilient.


Conditions that degrade or destroy a cable's ability to transmit data. Opens, short circuits and breaks are examples of common cable faults.


Microsoft's term for what Netscape and others call a bookmark. See also Bookmark.


An abbreviation for facsimile. See Facsimile and Facsimile Switches.

Fax Adapter

Hook one up between your printer and your phone. Bingo, your printer now becomes a fax machine.

Fax At Work

Fax At Work was a subset of Microsoft's office equipment architecture called At Work which was it announced on June 9, 1993. Microsoft's idea was to put a set of software building blocks into both office machines and PC products, including:

  • Desktop and network-connected printers.

  • Digital monochrome and color copiers.

  • Telephones and voice messaging systems.

  • Fax machines and PC fax products.

  • Handheld systems.

  • Hybrid combinations of the above.

Microsoft Fax At Work has not been adopted by the fax and telecommunications industry, since (the story goes) Microsoft has wanted too much in the way of royalties and Fax at Work is now effectively dead. Newer fax standards have been issued by the ITU ” including T.37 and T.38 ” which have interested the industry far more. They cover sending faxes over packet switched networks, such as the Internet and corporate Intranets.

Fax Back

You dial a computer using the handset of your fax machine. The distant computer answers. "What documents would you like? Here's a menu." You touchtone in 123. It says "Touch your Start button." You do. Seconds later your fax machine disgorges the document you wanted. Fax-back is the generic term for the process of ordering fax documents from remote machines. Fax-back uses a combination of fax and voice processing technology. Fax-back is also called fax on demand.

Fax Board

A specialized synchronous modem for designed to transmit and receive facsimile documents. Many fax boards also allow for binary synchronous file transfer and V.22 bis communication. See also Fax Server.

Fax Broadcasting

Automatically distributes faxes to preselected destinations.

Fax Data Modem

See Fax Modem.

Fax Demodulation

A technique for taking a Group III fax signal and converting it back to its original 9.6 Kbps. It works like this: When a sheet of paper is inserted into a fax machine, the fax machine scans that paper into digital bits ” a stream of 9600 bps. Then, for transmission over phone lines, that 9.6 Kbps is converted into an analog signal. But if you wish to transmit the fax signal over a digital line, then it makes sense to convert it back to its original 9.6 Kbps. That means you can put several fax transmissions on one 56 Kbps or 64 Kbps line ” the capacity you'd normally need if you transmitted one voice conversation, or one erstwhile analog fax transmission. See Fax/Data Modem.

Fax Enhancer

A standalone add-on device that connects to legacy fax machines for the purpose of boosting fax transmission speeds and enabling faxes to be sent over any network (Internet, PSTN and private networks).

Fax Jack

A device that connects to a phone line with two jacks , one for a phone and one for a fax machine and one for a phone line. When a call comes in the fax jack answers the call and waits for the mechanical tone from the other fax machine. If it doesn't hear the tone, it rings the phone. The downside is that they block caller-ID (ANI) signals.

Fax Mailbox

Imagine a phone number attached to a PC which accepts your incoming faxes and stores them on your PC's hard disk. Two things could happen. First, you could dial in and retrieve your fax, just as you do with your voice mail messages. Hence the name fax mailbox. Or second, the PC could simply send you your fax as an attachment to an email. I find the second service more useful. It allows me to receive faxes wherever I am in the world. Most of the time I'm NOT standing next to the fax machine in my office. My favorite company providing this service is called Others, like, also do it. Most do it for free.

Fax Mode

The mode in which the fax modem is capable of sending and receiving files in a facsimile format. See Fax Modem.

Fax Modem

A combination facsimile machine/modem. A device which lets you send documents from a computer to a fax machine. It comes in many shapes and sizes. It may come as a card which you slip into a vacant slot in your desktop PC (called an internal fax/modem). It may come as a PCMCIA card which you slip into your laptop. It may come as a small box which you connect by a cable to your computer's serial port. It may also come as a small self-contained package about the size of a cigarette package. It may also come as part of your motherboard, which it increasingly does these days in laptops. The technology of "fax modems" is changing radically . Originally they contained dedicated fax/modem chipsets, i.e. microprocessors designed as fax modems and good for nothing else. Increasingly, fax modems are now coming with powerful, general purpose digital signal processors (DSPs), instead of dedicated fax modem chipsets. These DSP devices become fax modems when you load the appropriate software. When you load other software they can also become the equivalent of sound blaster cards.

There are big advantages to sending faxes from a fax modem, as compared to sending it from a fax machine. First, faxes sent are cleaner because they're not scanned but computer generated. Second, sending faxes directly from your computer is faster than printing the document, then sliding it in a fax machine, dialing and sending it. Third, a fax modem is typically cheaper than a fax machine. Fourth, because a fax modem uses computer software it may have some neat features, like the ability to send faxes when phone costs are low, like running the fax software in the background while you're doing something else.

There is one main disadvantages: Keeping copies of the faxes you send on your hard disk is consuming of hard disk space. A typical one page fax can easily use between 40,000 and 50,000 bytes. Twenty pages and you've used up a megabyte. See also Fax Demodulation, Fax Server and Fax Switch.

Fax On Demand

You dial a computer using the handset of your fax machine. The distant computer answers. "What documents would you like? Here's a menu." You touch- tone in 123. It says "Touch your Start button." You do. Seconds later your fax machine disgorges the document you wanted. Fax on demand is one term for the process of ordering fax documents from remote machines. Fax on demand uses a combination of fax and voice processing technology. Fax on demand is also called fax-back. See Fax Server for a more complete explanation.

Fax Over IP

See FoIP.

Fax Publishing

Fax publishing allows a caller to have electronically stored information automatically faxed to them via a touchtone telephone. By pressing touchtone keys, callers can have timely information, including product brochures , business forms and benefits information, automatically faxed to them anytime , anywhere . See also Fax Server.

Fax Relay

Also known as "demod/remod," fax relay is one of the methods for IP fax transmission, as defined in ITU-T Standards Recommendation T.38. Fax relay defines the specification for the demodulation of standard analog fax transmission from originating machines equipped with modems, and their remodulation for presentation to a matching destination device, with the long-haul portion of the transmission being supported over an IP-based network. Fax relay depends on a low-latency (i.e., one second or less) IP network in order that the session between the fax machines does not time out. See also Fax Spoofing and T.38.

Fax Server

A fax server sits on a local area network and literally serves faxes to those people using it. Those people may be on the LAN physically, i.e. joined by wires to the server. Or they may be outside, reaching the LAN over phone lines. Basically anything that a live person can do with a fax machine, a fax server can do. It can receive faxes and distribute them to people they're addressed to. It can send faxes for people who are typically sending those faxes from their PCs. It can send faxes to people who call it on the phone and request certain faxes ” those stored on its hard disk. A fax is typically a relatively high-powered computer which has one or more PC fax boards in its slots. It can receive faxes. It can send faxes. It can store faxes. It can forward them. If it doesn't know for whom the faxes are meant, it may send the faxes to a printer or alert a supervisor to manually check the incoming faxes and distribute them ” electronically or on paper. The fax server also accepts from PCs on the LAN, stores them and gets them ready for sending out over phone lines. It might send the faxes immediately or wait until later, when phone calls are cheaper. It might send the same fax to thousands of people. It might send a personalized fax to thousands of people, grabbing the names from a database on it or on another computer. A fax server can also be an interactive voice response system which you call. When you call it, it answers, reads you a menu of options ” including various documents it can send you. You choose which documents you want by touchtoning in numbers . Then you designate to which fax machine you want the documents sent. The fax machine you designate might be the one you're calling from (i.e. you dialed using your fax machine's handset).

There are two types of interactive voice response fax servers. One is a one-call machine. The caller calls from his own fax machine. When he's chosen his faxes and he's ready to receive a fax, he simply hits the "Start" button on his fax machine and his machine receives the chosen faxes. There is also a two-call machine. The caller will call from a phone and touchtone in the phone number of a fax machine he wants the fax of his desired documents sent. One-call IVR fax servers are the newer breed, harder to build than the older two-call machines. There are obvious advantages to both. The one call machine ” in which the user pays the phone bill ” will, I suspect, become the more popular type. See also Fax Publishing and other Fax definitions.

Fax Spoofing

Fax spoofing is included in ITU-T recommendation T.38 as the method for fax transmission over IP (Internet Protocol) networks characterized by relatively long and unpredictable levels of packet latency, which could cause conventional fax machines to time out. Fax spoofing fools the machines by padding the line with occasional "keep alive " packets to keep the session active. Thereby, the receiving machine thinks that the incoming transmission is taking place over a realtime, timed circuit-switched network. Delays up to 5 seconds per packet can be tolerated using this approach. See also Fax Relay and T.38.

Fax Switch

A device which allows you to share one phone line with a fax machine, a phone and a modem. Here's how it works. A call comes in. The device answers the call. The switch listens for the distinctive CNG (Calling) tone which a calling fax machine emits (the "cry" of the fax machine). When it hears this sound, it switches the call to the fax machine. If it doesn't and hears nothing (or at least nothing it can recognize) it switches the call to the phone. If it hears some touchtones ” e.g. 44, or *6 ” it will switch the call to the modem (and therefore the attached computer) or whatever other device you've designated, including a modem-equipped cash register, etc. Some fax switches allow you to have a data conversation with one device (the cash register), then switch to another device (the second cash register) and another, etc. ” all on the one conversation.

The advantage of a fax switch is that it saves having to buy several phone lines. Phone lines are expensive compared to fax switches. There are disadvantages to a fax switch ” it typically must hear an incoming CNG tone to switch the call to the fax machine. This means if your friend wanting to send you a fax is dialing manually (i.e. not letting his fax machine do it), your fax switch may not ever send the call to your fax machine. Also you have to set up to dial those extra digits for your distant computer to "dial through" your fax switch. And finally, some fax switches don't send the "right" ringing signal to their attached devices. Some 9,600 baud and 14,400 baud modems, for example, are very sensitive and won't answer certain fax switches' ringing signals, especially if the fax switch's ringing signal is a DC square wave, not an AC sine wave. All this can be solved , however, with intelligence, checking and proper programming. I use a fax modem switch every day. It saves me money and is convenient . See CNG.

Fax Waiting Service

The name of a Bell Atlantic service. Fax Waiting Service is like Call Waiting for your fax machine. If your fax line is busy, a second incoming fax is electronically stored. When your machine is clear, FAX Waiting service sends it through. So customers, prospects and suppliers can get their faxes through on the first call ” without the frustration of busy signals. And employees can use your fax machine without interrupting your important fax communications. In fact, Fax Waiting is the next best thing to a second fax machine. A great idea.


The FaxBios Association is an organization of fax printed circuit card manufacturers who have formed an association in order to promulgate a standard applications programming interface (API) which they are calling FaxBios. Phone 801-225-1850; 2625 Alcatraz Avenue, Berkeley CA 94705.


The past tense of the new verb "to fax," as in "I faxed the document to him."


Framing bit.


See Fiber Bragg Grating.


Fused Biconic Tape.


  1. Functional Business Unit. A fancy name for a group of workers inside a company. An FBU might be your sales department, your accounting department, etc.

  2. BellSouth term for Failed Before Utilization. It means that BellSouth has turned up a circuit to a LEC to be "cut" for a customer and the circuit does not work. It won't pass traffic, does not pass go and does not collect $200. When it's FBU, BellSouth writes up a FUBI ticket. The term is also TUB (Turned Up Broke).


Frame Transport Bus.


Fixed Broadband Wireless Access.


  1. Fiber optic Connector (developed by NTT).

  2. Frame Control. On Token Ring networks, this data supplies the frame type.

  3. Feedback Control: Feedback controls are defined as the set of actions taken by the network and by the end-systems to regulate the traffic submitted on ATM connections according to the state of network elements.

  4. Fibre Channel.

FC Adapter

Fibre Channel adapter or host adapter. A Fibre Channel I/O (Input/Output) bus adapter board that operates at 100MBps in half-duplex mode, 200MBps in full-duplex mode.

FC and PC

Face Contact and Point Contact. Designations for fiber optic connectors designed by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone which feature a movable anti-rotation key allowing good repeatable performance despite numerous matings .

FC Connector

A simplex fiber optic connector developed in the 1980s by NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone). The FC connector is a keyed, all-metal connector with screw-on mechanics. The D4 connector is a derivative with a hood over the end of the connector to prevent damage to the fiber. See also SC Connector, SFF Connector, and ST Connector.

FC Switch

Fibre Channel switch. Intelligently manages connections between ports, routing frames dynamically. A nonblocking topology, it allows multiple exchanges of information to occur at the same time between ports. A switch offers better system throughput than a hub, but at greater expense. Some switches have a special FL-port to link arbitrated loops and other devices on the switch. By cascading multiple switches, more than 16 million devices can be connected together. See Cascade.


Lowest level of the Fibre Channel Physical standard, covering the physical characteristics of the interface and media. FC-0 defines the physical point-to-point portion of the fiber channel. This includes the fiber, the connectors, and the optical parameters for a variety of data rates. (A serial coaxial version is also defined for limited-distance applications). The following signaling rates are defined: 132.813 Mbaud, 265.625 Mbaud, 531.25 Mbaud, and 1.0625 Gbaud. These signaling rates correspond to the data transfer rates of 12.5 Megabytes per second (100 million bits per second), 25 Mbytes/s (200M bps), 50 Mbytes/s (400M bps), and 100 Mbytes/s (800M bps). FC-0 operates with a BER (Bit Error Rate) of less than ten to the minus twelve.


A Fibre Channel term. Middle level of the FC-PH standard, defining the 8B/10B encoding/decoding and transmission protocol.


A Fibre Channel term. Highest level of FC-PH, defining the rules for signaling protocol and describing transfer of the frame, sequence, and exchanges.


A Fibre Channel term. The hierarchical level in the Fibre Channel standard that provides common services, such as striping definition.


A Fibre Channel term. The hierarchical level in the Fibre Channel standard that specifies the mapping of upper-layer protocols (ULPs) to levels below.


Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop. A Fibre Channel network topology that allows as many as 126 nodes to share a loop. The physical topology is usually a star, logically configured as a double loop employing a Fibre Channel hub. The physical star is advantageous, as the network administrator can isolate a failed node, or either add or disconnect a node, without disrupting the entire network, as would be the case with a physical ring. See also Fibre Channel.


Fibre Channel-Enhanced Loop.


Flip Chip Pin Grid Array. A package of silicon chips that form certain Intel Pentium processors, the FC-PGA uses chips that have been turned upside down (i.e., flipped ) and attached to the board, which then connects to a Socket 370 motherboard socket via an array of pins, or leads. See also Socket 370.


Fibre Channel Physical standard, consisting of the three lower levels, FC-0, FC-1, and FC-2.


Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and Security. FCAPS is the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) framework for network management. Here's an explanation

In the early days of network management there was little consistency in the way administrators maintained their networks - each organization was left to their own devices. In addition, each vendor of networking equipment also created their own way of managing their equipment. For a network containing switches and routers from various companies there may have been several different network management platforms to learn and operate. In an effort to standardize management practices, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) studied how networks are managed and identified five important areas.

Fault management

Configuration management

Accounting management

Performance management

Security management

The ISO then created a standardized model for the management of each area and called it FCAPS, using the first letter from each of the five important areas of management. Fault Management The ability to monitor and fix problems in the network is in the fault management domain. Typically, fault management provides the ability to collect alarms and traps coming from network devices, filter these alarms to isolate problems, acknowledge alarms, and in advanced cases, predict when problems will occur in the network based on historical information.

Configuration Management Network configuration is very important for smooth operation. If one device is not set up properly the effects can be felt throughout the network. Configuration management records the configuration of network components and stores them so if something goes wrong, it is easy to go back to a previous working configuration.

Accounting Management The ability to provide information on network usage is the goal of accounting management. Typically used in the telephony area, accounting management is responsible for collecting call detail records (CDRs) containing information regarding a particular phone call (i.e., length of call, end points, etc.), which are used in creating billing records.

Performance Management Performance management is responsible for monitoring and configuring changes in the network to insure the best possible performance. QoS might be considered a performance feature since it allocates bandwidth based on application needs. The ability to monitor and configure QoS in this regard is considered to be a performance management function.

Security Providing security by defining how users can access the network is one of the most important aspects of network management. Implementation of authentication mechanisms as well as other types of authorization procedures must be carefully designed, implemented, and maintained to ensure the integrity of the network.

The five functional areas of FCAPS are the major components of any network management implementation. They are used merely as a reference for the development of network management products and services. Implementations of FCAPS services are determined by the various standards such as SNMP and CMIP as well as particular vendors ' implementations.

See Network Management for a detailed explanation.


File Control Block. FCBs are used by older MS-DOS application programs to create, open, delete, read, and write files. One FCB is set up for each file you open .


Federal Communications Commission. See Federal Communications Commission.

FCC Number

Sequential number assigned by the Secretary's Office (Agenda Branch) to all documents approved by the Commission. This number is assigned after the item has been adopted by the Commission. Example: FCC 96-123. The first two digits reflect the year.

FCC Record

A bi-weekly comprehensive compilation of decisions, reports , public notices and other documents released by the Federal Communications Commission. The FCC Record replaced the FCC Reports in October 1986. The Record is available for a fee. The ordering address: Superintendent of Documents, PO Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954; by phone: 202-512-8200.

FCC Registration Number

A number assigned to specific telephone equipment registered with the FCC, as set forth in FCC docket 19528, part 68. The presence of this number affixed to a device indicates that the FCC has approved it as being a compatible device for direct connection to telephone line facilities.

FCC Tariff #9

The FCC tariff for private line services including Accunet T-1.5, DDS, Voice Grade circuits, and Accunet T45.

FCC Tariff #11

AT&T's tariff file at the FCC for local private line services.

FCC Tariff #12

AT&T's tariff filed at the FCC tariff for custom-designed integrated services. A special tariff that allows AT&T to develop custom network solutions, including allowing customers to install their networking multiplexers in AT&T central offices and letting AT&T manage the network.

FCC Tariff #15

AT&T's FCC tariff filed at the FCC that allows AT&T to lower rates after all bids are placed to be competitive with other carriers .

Newton[ap]s Telecom Dictionary
Newton[ap]s Telecom Dictionary
ISBN: 979387345
Year: 2004
Pages: 133 © 2008-2017.
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