Apache Web Server for NetWare

Apache Web Server for NetWare replaces the NetWare Enterprise Web server, and is the only HTTP stack provided for NetWare 6.5. The Apache Web server is an open source Web server used by more than two- thirds of the Internet's Web servers. As such, it runs on all major server platforms and can scale to support thousands of simultaneous connections.

Apache Web server is a complex and full-featured Web server, so there is a lot more to it than can be covered here. However, because Apache is an open source application, most anything you want to know about it is available on the Web. You should take some time to look through the open source Apache documentation in order to become familiar with architecture and capabilities, particularly if you are going to implement a more complex Web environment. The Apache Web server documentation is available online at http://httpd.apache.org/docs-2.0.

Apache Web server is used in two separate ways on NetWare 6.5. First, one instance of Apache is installed automatically as a dedicated Web server to support the administration tools for NetWare 6.5 and its related products and services. You can find all files related to this instance of Apache in the SYS:ADMINSRV directory. The admin server supports Web Manager, iManager, iFolder, and iPrint, and other NetWare 6.5 services that need a Web interface.

A second instance of Apache can optionally be installed on NetWare 6.5 that will function as a dedicated Web server for hosting your organization's Web services, such as a corporate intranet, external Web site, or any other Web service. You can find all files related to this instance of Apache in the SYS:APACHE2 directory.

When you use iManager, accessible from any Web browser (including the new Web browser now available from the NetWare GUI), it is the Admin instance of the Apache Web server that is serving up the data between the Web browser and NetWare 6.5.

Installing Apache Web Server

If you are interested in using Apache only as the foundation for your NetWare 6.5 tools and services, you don't have to do anything to get Apache up and running. The admin server instance of Apache is installed automatically during the NetWare 6.5 installation.

However, if you want to create a dedicated Web server on NetWare 6.5, you need to specify the installation of the second instance of Apache. If you didn't select Apache as one of the NetWare 6.5 components to install during the initial server installation, you can install it after the fact through iManager. To install Apache Web server through iManager, complete the following steps:

  1. Insert the NetWare 6.5 Operating System CD-ROM into your workstation.

  2. Launch iManager and open the Install and Upgrade link in the left navigation frame.

  3. Select Install NetWare 6.5 Products, and then click Remote Product Install in the right frame.

  4. At the Target Server screen, select the server to which you want to install Apache Web server and click Next . Authenticate as an Admin user for your eDirectory tree and click OK.

  5. At the components screen, click Clear All and select only Apache2 Web Server and Tomcat 4 Servlet Container. Click Next.

  6. At the Summary screen, click Copy Files. You will be prompted to insert the NetWare 6.5 product's CD-ROM. After the Apache and Tomcat files are copied , click Close to complete the installation.

Once Apache Web server is installed, the following commands are inserted into the server's AUTOEXEC.NCF to load Apache and Tomcat automatically whenever the server starts:

 
 AP2WEBUP SYS:\TOMCAT\BIN\TOMCAT4.NCF 

The full path for TOMCAT4.NCF is optional because a SEARCH ADD path for this directory is also provided. However, by default, the TOMCAT4.NCF load statement includes the path.

To unload Apache Web server and Tomcat, use the following console commands:

 
 AP2WEBDN TC4STOP 

The admin server instance of Apache and Tomcat are also loaded automatically from the AUTOEXEC.NCF with the following commands:

 
 ADMSRVUP TCADMUP 

To unload the admin server and Tomcat, use the following commands:

 
 ADMSRVDN TCADMDN 

Apache Web Server Configuration

Apache Web servers are managed through a configuration file: HTTPD.CONF. NetWare 6.5 stores HTTPD.CONF in SYS:APACHE2\CONF\ . Typically, this means that you manually edit the configuration file to configure Apache. However, NetWare 6.5 offers Apache Manager, which puts a browser-based face on the HTTPD.CONF file. Apache Manager not only reduces the potential for errors, but also lets you manage your Web server environment from any Web browser.

NOTE

The admin server instance of Apache Web server also uses a configuration file SYS:ADMINSRV\CONF\ADMINSERV.CONF . However, you will likely not have to modify this file as part of your network administration duties .


Apache Manager operates in two modes: File and Directory. If you are running a single Web server, you can use the File mode to modify the HTTPD.CONF and store it directly on the Web server. To launch Apache Manager in File mode, complete the following steps:

  1. On the server running Apache Web server, open NetWare Web Manager by typing the following. For more information on Web Manager, see Chapter 3, "Novell Management Tools."

    https ://www.quills.com:2200

    or

    https://137.65.192.100:2200

  2. Log in as an Admin user in the eDirectory tree.

  3. Open the Open Source link in the left navigation frame and select Apache 2.0.

  4. In the yellow box, click Administer Single Apache Server. This will open Apache Manager, as shown in Figure 9.1.

    Figure 9.1. Apache Manager running in File mode.

    graphics/09fig01.gif

From this page, you can perform all the necessary configuration and management activities associated with Apache Web server. When changes are made, they will be written to the HTTPD.CONF file on the Apache Web server. However, if you are running multiple Apache Web servers in your environment, consider using Apache Manager in Directory mode. Directory mode lets you share configurations between several Apache Web servers by storing the configuration file in eDirectory.

In Directory mode, a configuration daemon imports the contents of the HTTPD.CONF file from each Web server into eDirectory.

To launch and configure Apache Manager in Directory mode, you should first load the configuration daemon on each Apache Web server in your environment:

  1. From the console of each Apache Web server you want to manage, load AP2WEBMAN to load the configuration daemon on the server.

  2. Enter a password for the configuration file on this server.

  3. Press Y and then Enter to create a directory object for this server's configuration file.

Once this has been done on all Apache Web servers, all configuration files will be stored in eDirectory. Once this is done, you are ready to run Apache Manager in Directory mode:

  1. Launch Apache Manager in File mode as described previously.

  2. Click the Administration Mode button in the header (see Figure 9.1).

  3. Select the storage mode for the Apache configuration and click Save.

    • File: This is the default option, and suitable for managing Apache on a single server. Apache configuration will be kept in the HTTPD.CONF file on the server.

    • eDirectory: This option will switch Apache configuration to the configuration stored in eDirectory. The eDirectory configuration is first created when you load AP2WEBMAN on the server and create an eDirectory object for Apache management.

    • eDirectory Import Wizard: If you want to update the Apache configuration in eDirectory as part of your switch to eDirectory Storage mode, select eDirectory Import Wizard and follow the prompts to import the current Apache configuration into eDirectory.

  4. When the Storage mode is changed, Apache Manager will automatically refresh. When it does, it will re-open in Multiple Server mode using the configuration stored in eDirectory.

With the complete Apache Web server configuration file in eDirectory, the configuration can now be applied to a single server, to a group of servers, or to all servers in your Web environment. Apache Manager lets you define groups of servers and apply a consistent configuration to all servers in the group. When a change is made to the configuration file, the configuration daemon will make sure that the change is replicated to each server in the group so that everything stays consistent.

Figure 9.2. Apache Manager running in Directory mode.

graphics/09fig02.gif

However, the aspects of the configuration are identical whether you are using File or Directory mode for doing the management of your Apache Web servers. So, for simplicity's sake, the actual Apache Web server configuration issues are discussed from the perspective of File mode. For more information on using Apache Manager in Directory mode, see the NetWare 6.5 online documentation.

Storing Web Content

The most important aspect of running a Web server is making sure that the various Web pages are available to your Web users. Although the art of creating Web pages is beyond the scope of this book, you need to know the basics about storing files on Apache Web servers so that pages will be available as needed. There are three main Web server directory features with which you should become familiar to do this: Document Root, Additional Document Directories, and User Home Directories.

Document Root

The home page associated with your Web server's IP address and/or DNS name is stored in the document root with the name INDEX.HTM (or .HTML). From the home page, you can create links to other pages, graphics, and applications as needed. Secondary resources can have any filename.

The document root, also called the primary document directory , is where a Web server will start looking for requested Web pages and resources. By default, Apache Web server document root is set to the following location:

 
 SYS:APACHE2\HTDOCS 

Because it's not necessarily a good idea to use the SYS: volume for storing your Web pages, you can change the document root to another volume and directory by completing the following steps:

NOTE

For the best Web server performance, you should keep the document root as high in the directory structure as possible to reduce document search times.


  1. From Apache Manager (see Figure 9.1), click the Content Management button in the header.

  2. Specify the new document root in the Document Root field and click Save. Use the following syntax to specify the document root: < volume >:\< directory >\< subdirectory > . For example:

     
     PRV_DATA:\APACHE2\DOCS 

    NOTE

    The path specified for the document root must already exist. There is no option to create a new path on the fly as part of this process.

  3. Click Save, and then select Save and Apply to reset the document root on the Web server.

Apache will be restarted so that the change will take effect.

Additional Document Directories

You can also create additional document directories for those who want to publish their own content, but to whom you don't want to grant access to the document root. This also lets you easily distribute the responsibility of Web content to those responsible for it.

NOTE

Additional directories don't even have to be located on the Web server. You can specify another server's volume and directory so long as that server is accessible from the Web server via TCP/IP.


To set an additional document root, complete the following steps:

  1. From Apache Manager, click the Content Management button in the header.

  2. Select Additional Document Directories from the left navigation frame.

  3. Specify the required information and click Save. Click Save and Apply to restart Apache so that the changes will take effect.

    • URL prefix: Specify the URL prefix or keyword you want to use to represent the path. This is appended to your root domain name.

    • File Path: Specify the complete (absolute) path of the directory to which you want to map the URL prefix. Use the volume :\ directory \ subdirectory syntax.

You will see a list of all additional document directories that are currently defined for this Apache Web server. In addition to creating new document directories, you can configure those that have already been defined.

User Home Directories

This feature lets you to set up document directories for each user in your eDirectory tree. This lets users access their own files from a Web browser. Effectively, users can have their own personal Web sites. To create a document directory for a user, complete the following steps:

  1. If you haven't already done so, use iManager to create a home directory for every user who will provide Web access to files.

  2. In the user's home directory, create a PUBLIC_HTML directory. Copy an INDEX.HTM file to it. This can be any simple HTML template that the Web server can use to display the user's content. Users will typically modify the default file as they build their personal Web page.

  3. Specify how Apache will authenticate to eDirectory in order to query for user home directories. Apache can use the default Public User object in eDirectory, or you can create a generic User object specifically for use by Apache. If you decide to create a generic User object, use iManager to create the user before continuing.

  4. From Apache Manager, click the Content Management button in the header.

  5. Select User Home Directories from the left navigation frame.

  6. Specify the required information and click Save.

    • Status: Check On to enable support for user home directories.

    • User URL Prefix: Specify the character to be used to indicate that the following text refers to a user home directory. The default character, and the one most commonly used in this situation is the tilde (~), but you can specify any character or number.

    • Subdirectory: Specify the name of the directory you created for each user as the primary document directory. By default, this is public_html .

    • User Search Contexts: Specify the search context where your user objects are stored. Apache uses LDAP to locate the specified context, so use LDAP syntax, with commas (,) as delimiters instead of periods (.). For example:

       
       o=quills,ou=provo 
    • Configuration Option: Specify the method you have chosen to log Apache in to eDirectory. Assign Public Rights uses the Public object, whereas Username and Password lets you specify a generic User object for use by Apache.

    WARNING

    The username and password information is stored, in plain text, in the HTTPD.CONF file. Make sure you have properly protected this file so that it cannot be accessed except by authorized administrative users. Generic User objects should only have rights to browse user directories, and no other areas of the NetWare 6.5 file system. For more information on setting file rights, see Chapter 6 .

  7. Click Save, and then Save and Apply to reset the User Home Directory settings on the Web server.

Apache will be restarted so that the change will take effect. Once enabled, users can view the content of their user home directory by typing the domain name, followed by a slash (/), followed by ~usersname . For example:

http://www.quills.com/~jharris

Hosting Multiple Web Sites

Apache supports virtual servers to host multiple Web sites on a single physical server. This lets a single NetWare 6.5 server potentially host all your Web server needs. This is useful if you need to let different divisions or departments host their own Web resources, or if you are an ISP and need to host multiple Web sites for your clients without having a separate physical server for each one of them.

You can host two types of virtual servers on your NetWare server:

  • Hardware virtual servers: This option lets you define multiple IP addresses and assign each to a different document root. Hardware virtual servers require fewer system resources than multiple instances of the Web server, but all hardware virtual servers must share the same configuration. If you want to set up different servers for different purposes, this might not be the best solution.

    NOTE

    To create a secondary IP address for use by a hardware virtual server, use the following console command:

     
     add secondary IPaddress  <IP address>  

    To have the server bind the additional IP address(es) each time it starts, add the command to the AUTOEXEC.NCF. It should be placed after the LOAD and BIND statements (or after the INITSYS.NCF statement, if INETCFG is being used).


  • Software virtual servers: This option lets you map a single IP address to multiple server names by assigning each server a distinct port number. Each software virtual server can have its own home page, which allows you to host multiple Web sites from one IP address. However, to do this, your Web clients (the Web browsers) must support the HTTP host header in order to distinguish between one software virtual server and the next.

NOTE

To support software virtual servers, configure Apache to listen on the additional ports by using the Listen Ports link in Apache Manager. From this page, you can define all the ports to which the Apache Web server should listen for incoming requests .


For more information on both of these virtual server options, see the Novell online documentation.

To set up a virtual server, complete the following steps:

  1. From Apache Manager, click the Content Management button in the header.

  2. Select Virtual Hosts from the left navigation frame.

  3. Specify the required information and click Save.

    • IP address:port: Specify the IP address of your Apache Web server, followed by a colon (:) and the port number you want to use. If you don't specify a port, Apache will assume port 80 . If you want to have Apache listen on both a secure and an unsecure port, enter both IP address and port combinations separated by a space.

    • Server name: Specify the hostname (DNS) of your Apache Web server.

    • Host TYPE: Specify the name-based option to set up a software virtual server. Specify IP-based to set up a hardware virtual server.

  4. Click Save and Apply to create the virtual server.

Apache will be restarted so that the new virtual server can be loaded as configured.

NOTE

For more information on both hardware and software virtual servers, you should review the Apache documentation on the subject at http://httpd.apache.org/docs-2.0/vhosts/ .


Apache Modules

The Apache Web server has been developed with a component architecture that permits functionality to be added through the addition of a functionality-specific module. A module is a specially developed extension for Apache Web server that provides new or expanded functionality.

Requests directed to an Apache Web server pass through a series of stages as they are handled. Some of the Apache stages include authentication, authorization, and access control. Modules can be inserted at these, or any other, stage to provide increased functionality.

There are several modules available for use with Apache Web server on NetWare 6.5:

  • mod_ldap_auth enables LDAP authentication support to Apache Web server.

  • mod_edir builds upon mod_ldap_auth to provide eDirectory authorization capabilities to Apache Web server.

  • mod_cache enables an HTTP content cache that can be used to cache either local content or content available through a proxy.

  • mod_perl enables support for the Perl scripting language on Apache Web server.

  • mod_php enables support for the PHP scripting language on Apache Web server.

  • mod_nsn enables support for the Novell Script for NetWare (NSN) scripting language on Apache Web server.

  • mod_dav provides WebDAV (Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning) functionality for the Apache Web server.

Selecting the Modules button in the header of Apache Manager can enable the caching module and the three scripting modules. For more information on using Apache modules, see the NetWare 6.5 online documentation and visit the Apache Web server documentation site at http://httpd.apache.org/docs-2.0/mod/.

Adding Content to Your Web Site

After Apache Web server has been installed and enabled, you can immediately access a sample Web page and some subpages that are included for demonstration. The default Web pages look just like Web Manager, but lack the links to the management utilities that are available through the secure interface. This content is stored in the default document root at SYS:APACHE2\HTDOCS .

To view the sample Web site, open a client Web browser on a workstation in your network and enter your NetWare server's IP address or DNS name. For example:

http:// <server_IP_address>

or

http://< domain_name >

Once your Web server is running, you can start posting content for your Web server audience to accesswhether that's your department, your company, or the whole world. Do this by placing files in the Web server's primary or additional document directories.

For example, suppose you created a new HTML file called MKTG_DOCS.HTM that includes links to the marketing collateral for your organization. You would probably copy that file to the additional document directory assigned to the marketing organization; for example, PRV_DATA:\WEB_PAGES\MARKETING .

Once the file is stored in the additional document directory, users can access the file by entering the Web server's DNS name together with the additional document directory identifier and the filename. For example:

HTTP://WWW.QUILLS.COM/MARKETING/MKTG_DOCS.HTM

The same general process governs the creation of any Web content, whether that content is an Internet site, a corporate intranet, a departmental page, or even a personal Web page. What differentiates one Web site from another is how it is available (internally versus externally) and what type of server it is running on. External sites and larger corporate sites are usually run on dedicated Web servers or hardware virtual servers, whereas smaller departmental sites work well on software virtual servers where users can easily create personalized pages, if necessary.

Publishing Content to a Web Site

When you are configuring an internal Web site, you will often have areas of a Web site that are available for contributors to publish their content. This makes it possible for users to communicate within a department, share information with other departments, and communicate items of general interest.

NOTE

Virtual Office is a powerful new feature for NetWare 6.5 that makes it much easier to create temporary or ad hoc portals for information sharing purposes. For more information on Virtual Office, see Chapter 10 .


Web content contributors have several options for publishing content to your Web server. For example:

  • Mapping a network drive and creating or copying the content to the desired directory

  • Using Internet Explorer 5.0 or higher

  • Using Novell NetDrive to map a drive

Additionally, users who are familiar with Web publishing tools can choose any of those with which they are familiar.

Publishing Content Using a Mapped Drive

If your contributors are using the Novell Client, this is one way of providing access to Web content areas. Use iManager to assign the appropriate rights to Web content contributors and provide users with the correct network path so they can map a drive to the content directory. You can also set up the drive mapping in a login script. For more information on login scripts with the Novell Client, see Appendix B.

Publishing Content Using Internet Explorer

Web-distributed authoring and versioning (WebDAV) is an industry-standard protocol that enhances HTTP, turning the Web into a document database that enables collaborative creation, editing, and searching from remote locations.

WebDAV support is provided on NetWare 6.5 through NetStorage. With NetStorage enabled, you can publish content directly to a specified document directory from Internet Explorer. For more information on NetStorage, see Chapter 10.

Publishing Content with NetDrive

Novell NetDrive lets you map a drive to any server without using the traditional Novell Client. This means that with NetDrive, you can access your files on any server and modify them through standard Windows utilities such as Windows Explorer. The NetDrive client can be installed from the Novell client's CD-ROM. For more information on NetDrive, see Chapter 10.

Securing Web Content

Once you have content organized and published, you should immediately start looking for ways to prevent unauthorized access and malicious tampering with your Web resources. There are three main areas that affect the security of Apache Web server: authentication, authorization, and encryption.

Authentication

As mentioned previously, Apache Web server integrates with any LDAP directory to provide authentication services through the mod_ldap_auth module. This makes it possible to integrate Apache with most any directory service that is available, including Novell eDirectory. Apache will refer to the LDAP directory to determine access controls, authentication credentials, and so on. The mod_ldap_auth module, discussed previously, provides this support.

Authorization

Apache must be able to access both eDirectory and remote server file systems in order to determine access rights to Web resources that a user might request when he or she visits an Apache-hosted Web site. The mod_edir module provides Apache with the capability to access both eDirectory and remote file systems in order to determine user rights. Two authorization modes are supported: Anonymous and Authenticated.

Anonymous Mode

Instead of using a username and password to authenticate to eDirectory or the remote file system, Anonymous mode lets Apache leverage [Public] rights to access eDirectory and remote files systems. However, in order to use Anonymous mode, you must do two things. First, you must grant [Public] access to the Home Directory attribute associated with every User object in the eDirectory tree. This is necessary in order to provide users with access to their home directories through the Web server.

Second, in order to access a remote server's file system, the NetWare 6.5 server running Apache must be able to log in to the remote server. To make this possible, make sure the Apache server hosts a local eDirectory replica and grant the Apache Web server's eDirectory object Read and File Scan rights to all remote file systems it will need to access.

Authenticated Mode

Instead of relying on [Public] access rights, Authenticated mode leverages a username and password that you create specifically for the Apache Web server. This username and password are stored in the Apache Web server's HTTPD.CONF file. This information must match an eDirectory user object that is created for the Apache Web server to use. This User object is then assigned rights to access the Home Directory attribute of all User objects in eDirectory, and Read and File Scan rights to all remote file systems that it will need to access.

Because storing an eDirectory username and password in HTTPD.CONF poses a significant security lapse, you should restrict access to the HTTPD.CONF file to only those with administrative rights to your Web server environment. You can also create a separate .CONF file that only holds the Apache directives necessary to specify the user ID and password to the Apache User object. Then you can reference this .CONF file from HTTPD.CONF whenever it is necessary.

Encryption

Encryption is the third aspect of a sound Web server security policy. Apache Web server can take advantage of the robust cryptographic foundations provided by NetWare 6.5, including the cryptographic keys and certificates provided by Novell Certificate Server. Certificate Server lets you create and securely store server certificates that can be used to encrypt Web server communications with SSL. Once enabled, SSL requires that you use the HTTPS:// prefix rather than the standard HTTP:// prefix when specifying URLs. For more information on Certificate Server, see Chapter 6.

SSL communications require a separate HTTP port than that used for unencrypted communications. Port numbers enable IP packets to be routed to the correct process on a computer. A total of 65,535 port numbers are available. Some port numbers are permanently assigned to a specific process; for example, email data under SMTP goes to port number 25. Other processes, such as Telnet sessions, receive a temporary port number during initialization. The Telnet port is reserved for use by the Telnet process only while the session is active. When the Telnet session terminates, the port is released for potential use by another process.

By default, unencrypted HTTP uses port 80 and encrypted HTTP (SSL) uses port 443 . To configure a secure port on which Apache can listen for secure communications, complete the following steps:

  1. From Apache Manager, click the Server Preferences button in the header, and select Listen Ports in the left navigation frame.

  2. At the Add Listen Port page, provide the necessary information and click Save (see Figure 9.3).

    • Listen Port: Specify the IP address and port combination that you want to configure for Apache listening. If you don't specify an IP address, the port configuration is applied to all IP addresses bound to the Apache Web server. If you don't specify a port number, the default port 80 is used.

      WARNING

      Don't configure port 80 for encrypted communications. Port 80 should be used for unencrypted HTTP communications.

    • Encryption: Select On to use SSL encryption with this port.

    • Server certificates: From the drop-down list, select the certificate you want to use for Web server encryption.

    Figure 9.3. Configuring listening ports in Apache Manager.

    graphics/09fig03.gif

  3. Click Save, and then Save and Apply to save the new settings and restart the Web server. This will enable listening on the new port.

In the Add Listen Port page, you will see a list of all currently configured listening ports for Apache. From this page, you can also edit or delete existing listen ports, as needed. You should be careful as you create new listening ports that you aren't creating any conflicts with existing IP services.

Some ports in the NetWare 6.5 environment can be reassigned, whereas others are permanent. Table 9.1 shows the default port assignments for NetWare 6.5 Web services as a starting point for planning the installation and configuration of your Web services.

Table 9.1. Default Port Assignments

SERVICE

PORT NUMBER(S)

CONFIGURABLE?

Apache

80 and 443

Yes

Domain Name Service (DNS)

53

No

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

20 and 21

No

iFolder

Uses LDAP and Apache ports

Indirectly by changing LDAP and/or Apache ports

iMonitor

80

Yes

iPrint

631 and SSL port

Indirectly by changing the SSL port

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)

389 and 636

Yes

NetWare Core Protocol (NCP)

524

No

NetWare File System

20 , 111 , and 2049

Only 2049 is configurable

NetWare Graphical User Interface

9000 and 9001

Yes

NetWare Remote Manager (NRM)

8008 and 8009

Yes

NetWare Web Access

Uses Apache port

Indirectly by changing the Apache port

Network Time Protocol (NTP)

123

No

RConsoleJ

2034 , 2036 , and 2037

Yes

Compatibility Mode Driver (CMD)

2302

No

Service Location Protocol (SLP)

427

No

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

161

No

Telnet

23

No

Tomcat

8080

Yes

Web Manager

2200

Yes

Apache Web Server Management

There are several pages of configuration options for the Apache Web server. They are organized into groups that correspond to the various buttons in the Header frame. In each group, the Navigation frame on the left provides links to specific configuration pages for Apache Web server. The following sections describe those features, not previously discussed, which are available in each group.

Server Preferences

This group of settings allows you to configure specific server-level settings that govern the behavior of the Web server itself. Server Preferences is the default group when the Apache Web server management interface is opened.

Server Status

This page shows you the current status of the Web server (Up or Down) and allows you to stop and restart the Web server remotely. It also tells you the configuration file management option that is currently in use (File or Directory).

View Configuration

This page gives you easy access to the server configuration parameters stored in HTTPD.CONF. It displays an abbreviated look at Apache's configuration parameters, showing some of the more important Web server settings (see Figure 9.4). Clicking any of the links displays a page that allows you to modify the information in these files. Make any necessary changes, click Save, and then choose Save and Apply to restart the server with the new settings.

Figure 9.4. The View Configuration page in Apache Manager.

graphics/09fig04.gif

Restore Configuration

If you have made changes to your server that have caused unwanted results, the Restore Configuration page can help you get back on track (see Figure 9.5). On this page, you will see a list of versions, dates, and change log notes indicating what was changed in Apache's configuration file each time. These are backups of every configuration that your server has had.

Figure 9.5. Restoring previous versions of HTTPD.CONF with Apache Manager.

graphics/09fig05.jpg

Apache saves a backup copy of HTTPD.CONF each time you make a change. These previous versions are stored in SYS:\APACHE2\CONF\BACKUP . By clicking the Restore button for a particular date and time, you can restore your server to the exact configuration it had at that time.

Performance Tuning

The Performance Tuning page enables you to make some basic performance adjustments to Apache Web server. However, the changes available through the Performance Tuning page are only the tip of the iceberg when compared to the options available by editing HTTPD.CONF directly. However, this can also lead quickly to problems if you are not very familiar with Apache server directives. Before going down that path, review the relevant material on the Apache documentation Web site at http://httpd.apache.org/docs-2.0.

NOTE

You will have much greater control over HTTPD.CONF if you are using Apache Manager in Directory mode as opposed to File mode. Directory mode was discussed earlier in this chapter.


MIME Types

Also known as context labels, MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension) types specify the file types that Apache Web server recognizes and supports. The MIME Types configuration file is SYS:APACHE2\CONF\MIME.TYPES . If you want to put MP3 files on your server, for example, you must add the MP3 extension to your MIME types. If this extension is not added, the server transfers the file to the user as text, instead of as a sound file. The Global MIME Types page makes it easy to add new types. From this page, you can also delete or modify existing types.

To add a new MIME type to your Web server, provide the following information:

  • Content Type: Specify the type of content for which you are creating a new MIME type. When a Web server sends a document to a client, it includes metadata that identifies the document's type so the client can handle the document correctly. Some common content types include

    • text/plain

    • text/html

    • image/jpeg

    • image/gif

    • application/x-tar

    • application/postscript

    • application/x-gzip

    • audio/basic

    • lang (used to specify a specific language)

    • enc (used to specify that the file is compressed)

    NOTE

    The official list of context types is maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ( IANA ), and can be found at www.iana.org.


  • Suffix: In the File Suffix field, enter the file extension associated with the context label you have specified.

Once you have entered the information, click New and your new MIME type will be added.

Network Settings

This page lets you specify three settings for your Apache Web server:

  • Server Admin: Specify the email address of the Web administrator who should be notified if problems are encountered on a Web site. This email address will be included with HTTP error messages sent to Web clients.

  • Server-Side Includes: Enables server-side includes (SSI) on Apache Web server. SSI is code that is executed on the Web server rather than the Web client. The results are then passed to the client. SSI is disabled by default because the parsing of SSI code can be processor- intensive and result in slower Web server performance.

  • SSI File Extensions: Specify the extension that will be used to denote Web content that uses SSIs. Typically this is .SHTML, but you can specify a different extension if you want.

Listen Ports

This page lets you configure the various ports that Apache Web server uses to listen for incoming requests. This information was discussed previously.

Error Responses

Typical HTTP error messages are pretty generic and do not give much information. Use the Error Responses page to customize error messages and potentially redirect the client to a location where more help is available. When a server cannot complete a request, it can send one of the following four error messages to the client:

  • Unauthorized (HTTP 401): Occurs when a user tries unsuccessfully to access a file in a secure area of the Web server.

  • Forbidden (HTTP 403): Occurs when the server does not have file system rights sufficient to read the requested data.

  • Not found (HTTP 404): Occurs when a user tries to access data that does not exist.

  • Server (HTTP 500): Occurs when the server is improperly configured or when a fatal error occurs (such as the system running out of memory).

There are many situations in which you might want to use custom messages. For example, if users are denied access, instead of receiving a message that simply says "Unauthorized," they could receive a custom error message that explains the reason they were denied access and points them to the help desk to have an account created.

To change the error response for your server, complete the following steps:

  1. Select the error response you want to change.

  2. In the appropriate dialog box, enter the path\filename or URL that you want to replace the default message. All errors except HTTP 401 also permit you to simply enter the text of the message directly into the dialog box.

  3. Repeat this process for each error message you want to change.

  4. When finished, click Save and then Save and Apply to restart the Web server with the new settings.

If you want to return to the default error messages, simply delete the custom information in the dialog box and click Save.

Server Logs

Apache Web server provides two types of server logs for tracking what is happening in your Web server environment. To view the error logs, click the Server Logs button in the header of Apache Manager.

Access Log

Select View Access Log in the left navigation frame to see Apache's access log. The access log records information about Web clients that access your Web server, and records client information such as IP addresses and date and time of access. By default, the access log is SYS:\APACHE2\LOGS\ACCESS_LOG .

Select Log Preferences in the left navigation frame to configure access log settings. From this page, you can enable/disable access logging, change the log filename and location, manage log file rotation scheme to prevent files from getting too big, and specify what information is logged.

Error Log

Select View Error Log in the left navigation frame to see Apache's error log. The error log records diagnostic information related to errors that occurred while processing requests. The error log is very important because it often contains details of what went wrong and how to fix it. By default, the error log is SYS:\APACHE2\LOGS\ERROR_LOG .

From View Error Log, you can also set the number of entries to display on a page, as well as filter entries for specific content, such as a specific error code.

Select Error Preferences in the left navigation frame to configure error log settings. From this page, you can change the log filename and location, manage the log file rotation scheme to prevent files from getting too big, and set the log level, or level of detail, you want included in the error log.

Content Management

Apache Web server offers many options for configuring and storing your Web content. To access these options, click the Content Management button in the header of Apache Manager.

Primary Document Directory

This page lets you set the primary storage location for Web server content, and was discussed previously.

Additional Document Directories

This page lets you set secondary document locations for Web server content, and was discussed previously.

User Home Directories

This page lets you configure locations where individual users can manage and access their own Web content. This information was discussed previously.

Document Preferences

Use this page to set the default Web page that Apache Web server will look for if no specific file is specified in a client's request. By default, this is INDEX.HTML, but you can set this to any filename you want.

URL Forwarding

Forwarding URLs is a common task on the Internet because Web sites move to new locations for various reasons. URL forwarding enables you to specify a forwarding address for any URL on your server. That way, if you move your Web site, a user can still type the old URL, but her browser automatically connects to the new location. To forward a URL, simply provide the pathname of the content that has moved, and then specify the new location for that content. Then, when a Web client requests the content, Apache returns the new URL to the client, which then requests it from the new location.

CGI Extensions

Common Gateway Interface (CGI) provides a very common method for adding dynamic content to a Web site. The CGI Extensions page lets you specify how Apache Web server handles CGI scripts. To configure a CGI interpreter, simply provide the required information and click Add.

  • CGI Path: Specify a complete (absolute) path to the CGI interpreter. NetWare 6.5 includes SYS:\PERL\PERLCGI\PERLCGI.NLM for this purpose.

  • Extension: Specify the file extension that will be associated with CGI scripts. Typically, (CGI) this is .CGI.

Virtual Hosts

This page lets you configure software and hardware virtual hosts. Virtual hosts were discussed previously in this chapter.



Novell NetWare 6. 5 Administrator's Handbook
Novell NetWare 6.5 Administrators Handbook
ISBN: 0789729849
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2002
Pages: 172

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