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This is a response to a risk event, generally made when the probability of the event and/or impact are small. It is used when mitigation, transference, or avoidance are not selected.

Active listening

This occurs when the receiver confirms the message is being received by feedback, questions, prompts for clarity, and other signs of having received the message.

Activity list

An output of activity definition that includes all of the activities to be performed within the project.

Activity on arrow

A network diagramming method where the arrows in the Arrow Diagramming Method network diagram represent the activities within the project.

Activity on node

A network diagramming method where the nodes in a project network diagram represent the activities.

Activity sequencing

A process for setting the order of activities within the project schedule.

Actual Costs (AC)

Used in earned value measurements; the actual cost of the work performed.

Administrative closure 

The documenting of the project results and the acceptance of the product by the customer or the project sponsor. Administrative closure is also needed if a project is terminated.

Analogous estimating

This relies on historical information to predict estimates for current projects. Analogous estimating is also known as top-down estimating and is a form of expert judgment.

Application areas

These are the areas of business, industry, and trade about which the project manager may need special knowledge. Common application areas include legal issues, technical issues, engineering information, and manufacturing information.


Beliefs considered to be true, real or certain for the sake of planning.


This is one response to a risk event. The risk is avoided by planning a different technique to remove the risk from the project.

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PMP Project Management Professional Study Guide
PMP Project Management Professional Study Guide, Third Edition (Certification Press)
ISBN: 0071626735
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 209

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